Chapter 2 - Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Genetics Deck (23):
1

What was Mendel known as?

The father of genetics

2

What was Mendel one of the first to do?

To study patterns of inheritence

3

Heredity definition:

The passing of traits from parents to offspring

4

What did Mendel use for his study?

Pea plants

5

Why he used pea plants? (three reasons)

There are male + female parts in the same flower so easy to control mating
Pea plants grow fast
The peas only had two different types - purple and white flowers

6

Monohybrid cross definition:

One cross of different traits

7

What a monohybrid cross is used to examine?

The distribution of one set of genes during reproduction

8

Self fertilization definition:

Was used to determine if offspring will have same characteristics as the original parent, called a test cross

9

What self fertilization tells us?

If all offspring of self fertilization were identical, then the original plant was true bred

10

What do the true bred plants serve as in Mendel's studies?

The parental generation, or P generation

11

What are the offspring of the parental generation called?

F1 generation

12

What did Mendel's experiment all for the F1 generation?

It allowed for them to self fertilize, which creates the F2 generation

13

What did Mendel learn from F2 generation?

The traits that disappear always reappear

14

Explanation of F2 traits reappearing?

Organisms can carry both forms but one masks the other
For Mendel, the purple petal trait was dominant over white petal trait

15

Each gene has two forms called what?

Alleles

16

What is an allele made from?

Egg and sperm

17

Principle of segregation:

When a parent makes sperms or eggs, their genes separate

18

Gamete definition:

Egg or sperm

19

Genotype definition:

The genetic makeup of an individual

20

Homozygous recessive:

Alleles are the same, and both are dominant (TT)

21

Homozygous dominant:

Alleles are the same, and both are recessive (tt)

22

Heterozygous:

Alleles are different (Tt)

23

Law of independent assortment:

Two or more pairs of alleles segregate independently of one another during gamete formation, creating at least four different outcomes