What do nuclei acids comprise of? What do the acids make?
DNA and RNA
The acids are used to make genes
What are some examples of the roles of proteins?
1) includes controlling chemical reactions of the cell by acting as enzymes
What does the fact that carbon atoms can form four bonds allow?
Allow a diversity of compounds to exist
What type of bonds to cave on atoms make?
What atoms does carbon usually bond with ?
Hydrogen, oxygen , nitrogen and phosphorus
What are the 4 types of carbons compounds that carbon be classified as?
4) nucleic acids
What are carbohydrates composed of?
Composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
What are lipids properties/ composed of?
Insoluble in water, including steroids, waxes, fatty acids and triglycerides
What are proteins composed of/ properties?
Composed of one or more chains or amino acids
Contain elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and sulphur
What are nucleic acids composed of/ properties?
Chains of subunits called nucleotides which contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus
What are the 2 types of nucleic acids?
1) ribonucleic acids (RNA)
2) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
What is metabolism?
Web of all the enzymes catalysed reactions in a cell or organism
What does metabolism allow?
Allows pathways by which one type of molecule can transform into another in a series of small steps
What is anabolism?
Is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules including the formation of macromolecules from monomers by condensation reaction
What two parts is Metabolism is divided into?
Anabolism and catabolism
What does an anabolic reaction require?
What 4 process can anabolism carry out?
1) proteins synthesis using ribosomes
2) DNA synthesis during replication
3) photosynthesis including production of glucose from carbon dioxide and water
4) synthesis of complex carbohydrates including starch, cellulose and glycogen
What is catabolism?
Is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules including the hydrolysis of macromolecules into monomers
What do catabolic reactions release?
Energy in form of ATP
What 3 process does catabolism to?
1) digestion of food in mouth, stomach and small intestine
2) cell respiration in which glucose or lipids are oxidised to carbon dioxide and water
3) digestion of complex carbon compounds in dead organic matter by decomposed
What are the most varied and complex molecules?
Nucleic acids and proteins