Chapter 2 Neural and Hormonal Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Neural and Hormonal Systems Deck (26):
1

Biological Psychology

The scientific study of the links between biological (genetics, neural, hormonal) and psychological processes.

2

Neuron

A nerve cell, basic building block of the nervous system.

3

Dendrites

A neurons often bushy, branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cells.

4

Axon

The neurons extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands.

5

Myelin

A fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons.

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Glial Cells

Cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.

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Action Potential

A neural impulse; a brief electric charge that travels down an axon.

8

Threshold

The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.

9

Refractory Period

A brief resting pause that occurs after a neuron has fired.

10

All or None Response

A neurons reaction of either firing or not firing.

11

Synapse

The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrites or cell body or the receiving neuron.

12

Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.

13

Reuptake

A neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron.

14

Endorphins

Morphine within. Natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure.

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Agonist

A molecule that increases a neurotransmitters actions.

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Antagonist

A molecule that inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitters action.

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Nervous System

Complex network of nerve candy cells that carry messages to and from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body.

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Central Nervous System

The brain and spinal cord.

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Peripheral Nervous System

The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central Nervous System to the rest of the body.

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Nerves

Bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central Nervous System with muscles, glands, and sense organs.

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Sensory Neurons

Neurons that carry incoming information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord.

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Motor Neurons

Europa that cary outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands

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Interneurons

Neurons within the brain and spinal cord.

24

Somatic Nervous System

The division of the peripheral Nervous System that controls the body's skeletal muscles

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Autonomic Nervous System

The part of the peripheral Nervous System that control the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. It CALMS.

26

Sympathetic Nervous System

The division of the automatic Nervous System that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy.