Flashcards in Chapter 2 Part 5 Deck (42):
Since what date and which person have England and France been at war?
Since William the Conqueror in the 11th century.
In what century did England and France’s rivalry extend into their North American colonies?
In the 18th century.
Between what years were the British and French at war in North America?
What do we call the war that was between 1754-1756 in North America?
The War of the Conquest.
By the 1700’s, which two European colonial powers “owned” territory all over the globe?
France and Britain.
What were the French more interested in?
They were more interested in Europe.
What were the British more interested in?
They were more interested in having a vast colonial empire.
What did the British have and what could they do in order to help with the conflicts with the French in their colonies?
They had a stronger navy and could send more troops to their colonies.
What did the French and British both want in North America?
They wanted to control the fur trade and expand their territory.
What was the British colony named?
The 13 colonies.
What did the 13 colonies have at the time that caused them to want what?
They had a high population growth and wanted more space.
From 1700-1760, Britain and France fought in which colonies?
Their colonies in Europe, India, the Caribbean and North America.
Why did the British and French colonies fight in 1700-1760?
They fought because the colonies were subject to the authority of the mother country so they had to participate in these wars or lay down their arms when their king signed a peace treaty.
What happened in 1713 and what was the result of this event?
The signing of the Treaty of Utrecht after the War of the Spanish Succession occurs which causes France to lose Acadia and the Hudson Bay.
What was the result of the War of the League of Augsburg?
There is no change in territory in North America for Britain or France.
Why is Acadia and the Hudson Bay important.
Acadia was important because of its strategically placed territory and its military importance. The Hudson Bay was important because it had the best furs for fur trade.
What was the result of the War of the Austrian Succession?
The French lose Louisbourg but then get it back. There is no change in territory.
Why is Lousibourg important?
It has the best fishing.
What occurs from 1756-1763?
An international war occurs between France and Britain over its territories. This war is called the 7 Years War.
What happens in 1754?
The British and French fight in the Ohio Valley.
During the conflicts in the Ohio Valley, what does George Washington do and what happens to him as a result?
George Washington attacks the French but the French fight back, causing Washington to surrender.
What happens in 1755?
The Expulsion of the Acadians occurs.
What do the British decide to do during the “Great Expulsion” of the Acadians?
They decide to deport (forcefully remove) the French settlers from where they live in Acadia after the Treaty of Utrecht.
For what reasons did the British decide to deport the Acadians?
The British were worried that the people would rebel against the, and they also wanted to bring in British colonists to settle in the territory.
How many Acadians were deported against their will? What happened to some of them?
10,000 Acadians were deported against their will. Many died, settled in French colony of Louisiana, New Brunswick or parts of New France as a result.
What strategy was smarter? The British’s strategy of wanting a larger colonial empire, or the French’s strategy of staying more interested in Europe?
The British’s strategy.
What was the first big event of the 7 years war and in what year did this event occur?
The capture of Louisbourg by the British in 1758.
What did the capture of Louisbourg allow the British to take control of?
It allowed them to control access to the St. Laurence Valley.
What occurred in the spring of 1759?
The Siege of Quebec, which was when the British lay siege to Quebec City for 10 weeks.
What happened on September 13, 1759?
More British troops arrive to help with the Siege of Quebec and the French and British battle on the Plains of Abraham,
Who led the British in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham? Who led the French? What happened to both of these generals?
James Wolfe led the British and Louis Joseph Montcalm led the French. They both die in battle.
How long did the Battle of the Plains of Abraham last? What is it arguably called in Canadian history?
The battle lasted for 20 minutes and is arguably the most important battle in Canadian history.
What is the result of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham?
The British win and Quebec City surrenders.
What does capitulate mean?
It means surrender.
What event occurs in 1760?
The battle of Sainte-Foy.
What happens during the Battle of Sainte-Foy? What is the result of this battle?
The French try to win back Quebec City but fail.
Who is the new British general and what does he receive from England? What does he do with these supplies?
The new general is James Murray and he receives help from England in the form of fresh supplies and marches towards Montreal to capture it.
Why didn’t the french get supplies when the British did?
France does not care about supporting the colony.
Who did New France rely on during the 7 Years War?
They relied on its alliance with the First Nations.
Why did the First Nations ally with New France?
Because they were both heavily invested in the fur trade.
What did the alliances with the First Nations allow the french to do during the 7 Years War? What did the British do to counteract that achievement?
It allowed them to dominate the first years of the war. The British, with their better navy, are able to send more troops turning the tide of the war in their favour.