Chapter 2 - Perception Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Perception Deck (42):

What is the difference between sensation and perception?

Sensation is the immediate response to our senses stimuli, and perception is the provcess of selecting these senses, and interpreting them.


Sensory stimuli go to receptors, then what is the path to interpretation?

Our mind is EXPOSED, then we give it ATTENTION, than we INTERPRATE it, all iwith our original EXPECTATIONS from the initial exposure going direct to interpretation as well


What is sensory marketing?

An era where companies pay extra attnetion to the impact of sensation on our product experiences. So using sounds, and smells in lobbies for exampel


What is a companies trade dress?


That is when some colour combo is associated so strongy that they become known as the companies trade dress. Tiffany's blue shade is one, and it is trademarked!


Can our eyes make us eat more?

Yes! Just by doing things such as offering bigger containter sizes or more colour/flavour variety in container, we eat more


What is Kansei Engineering?

A Japanese engineering philosophy that translates customers feelings into design elements.


So making you feel one with the car (or plane :) ), or making you feel a bit taller in a Chevy


What are the three stages of the perceptual process?

1. Exposure

2. Attention

3. Interpretation


What is hedonic consumption?

Multi-sensory, fantasy, and emotional aspects "delight" our senses


What sense influences mood and memory through our limbic system?



What are Phonemes of Brands?

these are unique product meanings from sound. For ex. I brands sound lighterh than A brands


What are "flavour Houses"?

These are companies that develop new concoctions for consumer palates


What is the absolute (sensory) threshold?

These are the minimum amount of simulation that can be detected on a sensory level. A dog whistle is one that surpasses


What is the differential (sensory) threshold?

IT is the ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences among stimuli


So a Just notcieable difference (J.N.D), these are discrete changes that we dont really notice. A soup can changing over time is an example, while it is still recognizable. 


What is Webers law?

Says it is not about the size of change, it is about the change in relation to initial stimulus. So the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater its change must be for it to be noticed


What are 2 reasons for using Weber's Law?

1. Ensure that negative product changes are not noticed (eg price incrase, or quant decrease)


2. Product improviements are perceived and recognized by the public (eg price reduction, quality improvements)


What are subliminal perception ads?

They ar eads designed to be perceived unconciously (below threshold of recognition). So we cant event detect ad at all!


What are 3 subliminal techniques?

1. Embeds

2. Subliminal auditory perception

3. Rapid Visual Messages


Do most marketers think subliminal perception holds any weight?





What are 4 reasons most researchers dont think subliminal techniques are much use in marketing?

1. Wide individual difference in threshold levels

2. Advertisers lack control over consumers distance and position from a screen

3. The consumers must be paying absolute attention to the stimulus

4. Even if the desired effect is induced, it only operates a very general level (so hungry, but not necessarily for McDs)


Define attention

It is the xtent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus


How can brands cut through the clutter?

Things like online rich media like will it blend basically makes their content intersting enough to amplify


But you can also wedge content into ad time, teaser ads with a story line


What is perceptual selectivity in regards to clutting through ad clutter?

People pay attention onyl to stimuli to which they are exposed and is relevant


What are the two parts of perceptual selectivity?

1. Perceptual Filters

Based on past experiences (so 1st time in store was good, so second time better not be dissapointing)


2. Personal selection factors

3 things that define this, personally


What are the 3 personal selection factors?

1. Perceptual vigiliance

aware of stimuli that has to do with them

2. Perceptual defense

They see what they want to see, ignore everything else

3. Adaption

sensation becomes so familiar we ignore it, and has to do with intensity, duration, discrimination, exposure, and little relevance


What are the 5 factors that impact the level of adaption?

1. Intensity (we actually take longer for bold stuff)

2. Duration (We need less time after awhile)

3. Discrimination (ads need to be different then eachother)

4. Exposure (more exposure adapts quicker)

5. Relevance (If not relevant, we adapt and tune it out)


What are the two stimulus selectoin factors?

1. Webers law

Differences in size, colour, position, and novelty


2. Interperation: assigned meaning to stimulus

Schemas, which are collections of beliefs and feelings to represented in a cognitive category that lead to stimulus evaluation.




How can you create contrast with ads?

You can have colours defining your brand, but you can also take sound or colour out in media where its not expected. Such as black and white ads, and soundless ads


What are the two interpretation parts of stimulus selection factors?

1. Schemas

which are collections of beliefs and feelings to represented in a cognitive category that lead to stimulus evaluation.


2. Priming

Thisi s where you try to evoke a schema. So like Oreo dipping with grandpa creating a nostalgia and feelgood schemas


What is stimulus interpretation?

IT is associated with other related events, sensations, or images


What is Gestalt?

This is when the whole is greater than the sum of it. So we can fill gaps in things, such as incomplete ads on purose


What are the three principles of Gestalt 

1. Closure

perceive an incomplete picture as complete


2. Similarity

consumers group together objects that share similar characteristics


3. Figure-ground

One part of the stimulus will dominate with figure, while the other parts recede into the background


With perceptual positioning, Brand perceptions =

Brand perceptions= functional attributes + Symbolic Attributes


What is the perceptual map?

Mapping company's own strengths and weaknesses in comparison to competitors, which influences market position. So we don't just advertise functional attributes, this is what coke thought for blind taste test new product fiasco. So it's important to know what brand means, not what it does. So the imagery and feelings and perceptions of coke vs pepsi, not taste


What is the sicience that focuses on how the physical environemnt is integrated into our personal, subjective world?




What is the absolute threshold?

The minimum amount of stimuluation that we ccan detect on a sensory channel


For subliminal perception marketing, what are EMBEDS?

EMBEDS are tiny figures that are inserted into magazine advertising using high-speed photography or airbrushing


What is perceptual vigilance and perceptual defence?

These two are opposites, so vigilance is a factor in selective exposure where we are more likely to be aware of a stimuli because they relate to our current needs. Perceptual defence is when people see what they want to see, and dont see what they don't want to see, so a smoker may block out charred lung images.


What are four factors that can make contrast?

Size, colour, position, and novelty


How can interpretation refer to meanings that people assign to sensory stimuli with kids eating carrots out of McDs bags?

They liked stuff out of the brand-they-loved bags more than the plain bags


Think of three figures that communicate

Principle of closure

Principle of similarity

Principle of figure-ground


What are 6 positioning dimensions that establish a brands position in the marketplace?

  1. Price leadership
  2. Attributes
  3. Product class
  4. Occasions
  5. Users
  6. Design


K = ΔI / I where: K = a constant; ΔI = the minimal change in intensity of the stimulus required to produce a JND; and I = the intensity of the stimulus where the change occurs. This relationship is known as ___________________.

Weber's Law

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