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Flashcards in Chapter 2- Pharchem lec Deck (113):
1

Maintain the pH of various formulations

Buffers

2

Prevent oxidative decomposition of pharmaceutically active components

Antioxidants

3

Primary solvent or liquid phase in most liquid pharmaceutical preparations

Water

4

Used for storage and as dispensing container for most drug products

Glass

5

H3BO3

Boric acid

6

Molecular weight of Boric acid

61.83

7

Synonyms of Boric acid

Boracid Acid
Hydrogen Borate
Orthoboric Acid

8

Native Boric Acid

Sassolite

9

Na2B4O7•4H20

Rasorite or Kernite

10

Na2B4O7•10H20

Borax

11

CaB4O7•4H20

Borocalcite

12

Ca3B6O7•10H20

Colemanite

13

H3BO3•Na2B4O7•2CaB4O7•18H20

Tincal

14

Three forms of Boric acid

Colorless, odorless, pearly scales
Six-scaled triclinic crystals
White, odorless powder

15

More suitable form of boric acid in preparing an aqeous solution

Scale and Crystalline (Powder tend to float on top of water

16

Density of boric acid

1.46

17

Where is boric acid soluble?

Water and alcohol

18

Where is boric acid freely soluble?

Glycerin, boiling water and boiling alcohol

19

Reaction of boric acid with equimolar quantities of glycerin at 140C to 150C

Boroglycerin Glycerite NF XI (C3H5BO3)

20

HCl

Hydrochloric acid

21

Molecular weight of hydrochloric acid

36.46

22

Synonyms of hydrochloric acid

Muriatic acid, spirit of sea salt, marine acid and espiritu de sal marina

23

Aqeueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas

Hydrochloric acid

24

Specific gravity of HCl

1.18

25

Brine

Muria

26

Technical grade of HCl containing 35% to 38% HCl

Muriatic acid

27

What gives muriatic acid its characteristic yellow color?

Impurities

28

Absorbing or attracting moisture from air

Hygroscopic

29

Absence of HCl

Gastric achlorhydria

30

Deficiency of HCl

Hypochlohydria

31

HNO3

Nitric Acid

32

Molecular weight of HNO3

63.01

33

Synonyms of HNO3

Spirit of nitre, aqua fortis, agua fuerte

34

Highly corrosive fuming liquid having highly irritating odor

Nitric acid

35

Boiling point of HNO3

120C

36

Specific gravity of HNO3

1.41

37

Yellow stain on animal tissue due to nitration of aromatic amino acids, phenylamine, tyrosine and tryptophan

Xanthoproteic test

38

HNO2

Nitrous acid

39

TNT

Trinitrotoluene

40

H3PO4

Phosphoric acid

41

Molecular weight of H3PO4

98

42

Synonyms of phosphoric acid

Orthophosphoric acid, acido orthofosforico

43

Colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid

Phosphoric acid

44

Specific gravity of H3PO4

1.71

45

H2SO4

Sulfuric Acid

46

Molecular weight of sulfuric acid

98

47

Specific gravity of H2SO4

1.84

48

Commercial variety of sulfuric acid which contains about 10% of dissolved SO3

Oleum

49

2 industrial processes of preparing sulfuric acid

Contact of catalytic process
Lead chamber process

50

Produces most of the commercial sulfuric acid today

Contact process

51

Used as catalysts

Vanadium and platinized silica gels

52

Most concentrated product obtained contains only 76% by weight of H2SO4

Lead Chamber process

53

Synonyms of strong ammonia solution

Ammonium hydroxide, stronger ammonia water

54

Diluted ammonia solution

Ammonia water or household ammonia

55

KOH

Potassium hydroxide

56

Molecular weight of KOH

56.11

57

Synonyms of KOH

Caustic potash. Potassa

58

Conversion of drugs to chemical forms

Acids and Bases

59

NaOH

Sodium hydroxide

60

Molecular weight of NaOH

40

61

Synonyms of NaOH

Caustic soda, soda lye

62

Na2CO3•H20

Sodium carbonate

63

Synonyms of Na2CO3•H20

Monohydrated sodium carbonate

64

Molecular weight of soium carbonate

124

65

Anhydrous form

Soda ash

66

Monohydrate

Na2CO3•H20

67

Heptahydrate

Na2CO3•7H20

68

Decahydrate

Na2CO3•10H20

69

Anhydrous sodium carbonate

Calcined soda

70

Mixture of calcium hydroxide and sodium orpotassium hydroxide or both

Soda lime

71

Soda lime is used for?

Metabolism tests, anesthesia and oxygen therapy

72

Reasons for controlling pH

Chemical stability, solubility of the drug, patient's comfort

73

Pair of related chemical compounds capable of resisting large changes in the pHof a solution

Buffer systems

74

Inorganic buffers of importance which have particular advantages in pharmaceutical preparations

Phosphate and borate buffer system

75

3 primary borate systems

Feldman's buffer system (pH 7-8.2)
Atkins and Pantin buffer system (pH 7-6.11)
Gifford buffer system (pH 6-7.8)

76

Na2B4O7•10H20

Sodium borate

77

Synonyms of sodium borate

Borax, sodium pyroborate, sodium pyroborate, tinkal

78

HPH2O2

Hypophosphorous acid

79

Molecular weight of HPH2O2

66

80

Specific gravity of hypophosphorous acid

1.13

81

SO2

Sulfur dioxide

82

Molecular weight of SO2

64.06

83

Synonyms of SO2

Sulfurous anhydride

84

Density of SO2

1.5

85

NaHSO3

Sodium bisulfite

86

Molecular weight if NaHSO3

104.06

87

Synonyms of NaHSO3

Sodium hydrogen sulfite, sodium acid sulfite, leucogen

88

Na2S2O5

Sodium metabisulfite

89

Molecular weight of sodium metabisulfite

190.10

90

N2

Nitrogen

91

Molecular weight of N2

28.01

92

Caused by the presence of calcium or magnesium bicarbonates in the water

Temporary hardness or bicarbonate hardness

93

Caused by the presence of sulfates, chloride or hydroxides of calcium and/or magnesium in the solution

Permanent hardness

94

Other means of purifying water

Addition of soluble carbonates
Chelation by the Zeolite (Permutit)
Deionizer or Demineralizer
Polyphosphate chelation

95

Water obtained by distillation or by ion exchange treatment

Purified water

96

Water purified by distillation. Must meet requirement for pyrogen test (rabbits) and bacterial endoxin tests (LAL)

Water for injection

97

Water for injection is sterilized and suitably packaged. Most difficult to prepare

Sterile water for injection

98

Prepared from water for injection that is sterilized and suitably packaged. Intended for inhalation therapy

Sterile water for inhalation

99

It contains no antimicrobial agents or other added substances

Sterile water fir irrigation

100

Containing one or more suitable antimicrobial agents

Bacteriostatic water for injection

101

Common bacteriostatic agent

Benzyl alcohol

102

Generic term referring to vitreous material

Glass

103

Decreases the coefficient of expansion of pyrex glasses

Boron

104

Gives brown light resistant glass

Potassium

105

4 general types of glass

Type I, II, III, NP

106

Highly resistant, borosillicate glass

Type I

107

Treated soda lime glass

Type II

108

Soda lime glass

Type III

109

General soda lime glass

Type NP

110

Usually specify the type of glass container or a suitable buffer uf the drug is base sensitive

Compendia

111

Superior light protective container except for ointments

Opaque container

112

Clear containers are preferred because:

The patient likes to see what he is buying.
The amount left in the bottle is seen.
The ease of pouring.

113

Screen out ultraviolet radiation very effectively. Recommended for protection from light.

Amber glass