Chapter 2 - Pharmacokinetics & Individual Varation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Pharmacokinetics & Individual Varation Deck (33):
1

Bioavailability

Percentage of the drug dosage that is absorbed

2

Drug Absorption

entrance of a drug into the bloodstream from its site of administration

3

Drug Addiction

Condition of drug abuse and drug dependence that is characterized by compulsive drug behavior

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Drug Dependence

Condition of reliance on the use of a particular drug, characterized as physical and/or psychological dependence

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Drug Distribution

Passage of a drug from the blood to the tissues and organs of the body

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Drug excretion

Elimination of the drug from the body

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Drug metabolism

The enzymatic biotransformation of a drug into metabolites

8

Drug Microsomal Metabolizing System (DMMS)

Group of Enzymes located primarily in the liver that function to metabolize (biotransformation) drugs

9

Drug Tolerance

Decreased drug effect occurring after repeated drug administration

10

Enzyme Induction

Increase in the amount of drug-metabolzing enzymes after repeated administration of certain drugs

11

Enzyme Inhibition

Inhibition of a drug-metabolizing enzymes by certain drugs.

12

First-pass metabolism

Drug metabolism that occurs in the intestines and liver during oral absorption of drugs into the systemic circulation

13

Half-Life

Time required for the body to reduce the amount of drug in the plasma by one-half

14

Individual Variation

Difference in the effects of drugs and drug dosages from ones person to another

15

Intramuscular (IM) Injection

Route of drug administration; drug is injected into gluteal or deltoid muscles

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Intravenous (IV) Injection

Route of drug administration; drug is infected directly into a vein

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loading dose

Initial drug dose administered to rabidly achieve therapeutic drug concentrations

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Maintenance Does

Dose administered to maintain drug blood levels in the therapeutic range

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Oral Administration

route of drug administration by way of the mouth through swallowing

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Parenteral Administration

Route of drug administration that does not involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract

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Pharmacokinetics

describes the processes of drub absorption, drug distribution, drug metabolism, and drug excretion

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Pregnancy category A

Drug studies in pregnant women have not yet demonstrated risk to the fetus

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Pregnancy category B

Drug studies have not been performed in pregnant women; animal studies have not demonstrated fetal risk

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Pregnancy category C

Drug studies have not been performed in pregnant women or in animals, or animal studies have revealed some teratogenic potential but the risk to the fetus is unknown

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Pregnancy category D

Drug studies have revealed adverse risk to the fetus. The benefit-to-risk ratio of the drug must be established before use during pregnancy

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Pregnancy category X

Drug studies have revealed teratogenic effects in women and/or animals. Fetal risk clearly outweighs benefit. Drug is contraindicated in pregnancy

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Pregnancy category NR

Drug has not yet been rated by FDA

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Drugs with Teratogenic Risk (Table 2.3)

Androgens (male hormone)
Carbamazepine
Diethylstilbestrol
Estrogen (female hormone)
Lithium
Phenytoin
Retinoic acid
Thalidomide
Warfarin

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Incompatibility

Usually refers to physical alterations of drugs that occur before administration when different drugs
are mixed in the same syringe or other container

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Additive effects

When the combined effect of two drugs, each producing the same biological response by the same mechanism of action, is equal to the sum of their individual effects

31

Summation

When the combined effect of two drugs, each producing the same biological response but by a
different mechanism of action, is equal to the sum of their individual effects

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Synergism

When the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the sum of their individual effects

33

Antagonism

When the combined effect of two drugs is less than the sum of their individual effects