Chapter 2- Principles Of Drug Action And Drug Interactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2- Principles Of Drug Action And Drug Interactions Deck (88):
0

True or False?
Drugs do not create new responses but alter existing physiologic activity

True

1

What is pharmacodynamics?

The study of interactions between drugs and their receptors and the series of events resulting in pharmacological response

2

Agonists are?

Drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response

3

Antagonists are?

Drugs that attach to a receptor but do not stimulate a response

4

Drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response but inhibits other responses are?

Partial antagonists

5

What is ADME

A: absorption
D: distribution
M: metabolism
E: excretion

6

What is the study of the mathematical relationships among ADME of individual medicines over time

Pharmacokinetics

7

What are the most common routes of drug administration?

Enteral, parenteral, and percutaneous routes

8

How are drugs administered via enteral route?

Directly into the GI tract by oral, rectal, or nasogastric route

9

How are drugs administered via parental route?

Using subcutaneous, intramuscular or intravenous routes. Aka sub cut, IM, and IV

10

Inhalation, sublingual, and topical administrations are examples of

Percutaneous routes

11

The process whereby a drug is transferred from its site of entry into the body to the circulating fluids of the body for distribution around the body.

Absorption

12

The rate at which absorption occurs depends on?

The route, the blood flow, and the solubility of the drug

13

Three nursing considerations concerning absorptions are?

1) Administer oral drugs with an adequate amount of fluid usually a large 8 ounce glass of water.
2) Give parenteral forms properly so that they are deposited into the correct tissue for enhanced absorption.
3) Reconstitute and dilute drugs only with the diluent recommended by the manufacturer in the package literature so that the drugs solubility is not impaired

14

What is an example of an insulin site assessment (nursing implementiations)

If a lump remains at the injection site 2-3 hours later absorption maybe impaired

15

Rate of absorption when a drug is administered by a parenteral route depends on?

the rate of blood flow through the tissues

16

What is distribution?

Distribution refers to the ways in which drugs are transported through out the body by circulating body fluids to the site of action, metabolism, and excretion

17

What are the organs with the most extensive blood supplies?

The heart, liver, kidney, and brain receive the distributed drugs most rapidly.

18

Muscle, skin, and fat....

Are areas with less extensive blood supplies

19

Inactive drugs are

Drugs that are bound to plasma proteins

20

Unbound drugs are able to?

Be active. Defuses into tissues interact with receptors and produce physiologic effect or are metabolized and excreted.

21

Lipid soluble drugs tend to

Stay in the body longer

22

Lipid soluble drugs have a?

High affinity for adipose tissue

23

Distribution may be?

General or selective

24

What is metabolism?

Biotransformation

25

Define metabolism

The process whereby the body inactivates drugs

26

Where is the primary site for metabolism?

The liver

27

What are important factors for the conversion of drugs?

Genetic variation of enzyme systems, concurrent use of other drugs, exposure to environmental pollutants, concurrent illness and age.

28

Define excretion

That elimination of drug metabolites and the active drug itself.

29

What are two primary routes of excretion?

G.I. tract to the feces and renal tubes into the urine

30

Evaporation through the skin, exhalation from the lungs, and secretion into the saliva and breastmilk are examples of?

Other routes of excretion

31

A measure of time required for elimination is?

The half-life

32

Define half-life

The amount of time required for 50% of the drug to be a eliminated from the body

33

Define onset of action

When the concentration of a drug at the site of action is sufficient to start a physiologic response

34

What factors affect the onset of action?

Route of administration, rate of absorption, distribution and binding to receptors sites

35

The time at which a drug reaches the highest concentrations on the target receptor sites are called?

Peak action

36

How long the drug has a pharmacologic effect is called?

Duration of action

37

What is a drug concentration time profile?

A time response curve that shows the onset, peak, and duration of action of a drug

38

What demonstrates the relationship between administration of a drug and response?

Time response curve

39

What is the desired action?

The expected response

40

What is another word for side effect?

Adverse effects

41

What does ADR stand for?

Adverse drug reactions

42

Define ADR

Any noxious, Unintended, and Undesired effect of a drug used in humans for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy

43

Right drug, right dose, right patient, bad effect

Adverse drug reaction (ADR)

44

What does ADE stand for?

Adverse drug events

45

What is another word for adverse drug events?

Medication errors

46

Define ADE

Any injury resulting from medical intervention related to a drug

47

What are commonly seen ADRs?

Rash, nausea, itching, thrombocytopenia, vomiting, hyperglycemia, and diarrhea

48

Classes of medicine that account for the large number of ADRs are?

Antibiotics, cardiovascular medicine, cancer chemotherapy agents, analgesics, and anti-inflammatory agents

49

What are two types of drug reactions that are much more unpredictable?

Idiosyncratic reaction and allergic reactions

50

Define Idiosyncratic reaction

Occurs when something unusual or abnormal happens when a drug is a first administered

51

True or False?
Idiosyncratic reactions are common

False. They are rare.

52

Allergic reactions are also known as

Hypersensitivity reaction

53

Urticaria is another word for?

Hives

54

What are hives?

Raised, irregularly shaped patches on the skin and severe itching

55

A severe life threatening reaction causing respiratory distress and cardiovascular collapse is known as

Anaphylactic reaction

56

True or False?
Anaphylactic reaction is not an emergency

False. It is a medical emergency and must be treated immediately

57

The ability of a drug to induce living cells to mutate and become cancerous is known as?

Carcinogenicity

58

A drug that induces birth defects is known as

Teratogen

59

The greatest potential for birth defects caused by drugs during which trimester?

The first trimester of pregnancy

60

List the factors that has been identified as a contributor to a variable response to drugs

Age, body weight, metabolic rate, illness, physiologic aspects, tolerance, dependence, and cumulative effect

61

Which age group is the most sensitive to the effects of drugs?

Infants and the very old

62

How does bodyweight influence drug action?

Overweight patients require an increase in dosage where as patients who are underweight require lower dosage

63

How does metabolic rate influence drug action?

People with an higher than average metabolic rate tends to metabolize drugs rapidly needing a larger dose or more frequent administration.

64

When a person begins to need a higher dosage to produce the same effects that a lower dosage had once provided is known as

Tolerance

65

Define drug dependence

When a person is unable to control his or her ingestion of drugs

66

What are two examples of drug dependence?

Physical or psychological

67

What are two types of drugs that are common for drug dependence

Opiates and benzodiazepines

68

True or false
A drug may accumulate in the body if the next dose is administered before the previously administered drug has been metabolized or excreted

True

69

What results in drug toxicity?

Excessive drug accumulation

70

Inebriated is the same as

Drunk

71

What occurs when the action of one drug is altered by the action of another drug?

Drug interaction

72

Two ways drugs interact

1) Agents that, when combined, increase the actions of one or both drugs
2) Agents that, when combined, decrease the effectiveness of one or both of the drugs

73

Did two examples of drug food interaction

MAOI with wine and cheese, Coumadin with vitamin D

74

What are food and drug interactions

When food may even increase or decrease or even alter expected response of drug

75

Define incompatibility

What drugs do not combine chemically with other drugs

76

Conditions under which the drug should not be given is known as

Contraindications

77

A drug that counteract the effects of poison or toxicity

Antidote

78

Antidote for digoxin

Digibind

79

Antidote for heparin

Protamine sulfate

80

Antidote for opioid analgesics and heroin

Naloxone, nalmefene

81

Antidote for benzodiazepines

Flumazenil

82

Antidote for warfarin

Vitamin K

83

Poison control phone number?

1-800-222-1222

84

What measures the amount of a drug present in the blood to determine if it is within the therapeutic range

Drug blood level

85

Define Synergistic effect

When the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the effect of each drug alone. One plus one equals three.

86

Define additive effect

When two drugs with similar actions have an increased effect. One plus one equals two

87

Digoxin is an

Antiarrhythmic