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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Quiz Deck (31):
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development

orderly and lasting growth, adaptation, and change over the course of a lifetime

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Continuous Theories of Development

Theories based on the belief that human development progresses smoothly and gradually from infancy to adulthood

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Discontinuous Theories of Development

Theories describing human development as occurring through a fixed sequence of distinct, predictable stages governed by inborn factors

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Cognitive Development

Gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated

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Schemes

mental patterns that guide behavior

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Adaptation

the process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation and accommodation

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Assimilation

understanding new experiences in terms of existing schemes

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Accommodation

modifying existing schemes to fit new situations

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Equilibration

the process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences

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Constructivism

view of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality

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Sensorimotor

Stage during which infants learn about their surroundings by using there senses and motor skills

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Reflexes

Inborn automatic responses to stimuli (blinking because of bright light)

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Object Permanence

understanding that an object even if it is out of site

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Pre-operational Stage

stage at which children learn to represent things in their mind

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Conservation

the concept that certain properties of an object (weight) remains the same regardless of changes in other properties (length)

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Centration

paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation

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Reversibility

the ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse ones thinking to return to the starting point

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Egocentric

believing that everyones views the world as you do

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Concrete Operational Stage

Stage at which children develop the capacity for logical reasoning and understanding of conversation but can use these skills only in dealing with familiar situation

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Inferred Reality

The meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information

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Seriation

arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume

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Transitivity

a skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development in which individuals can mentally arrange and compare objects

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Formal Operational Stage

stage at which one can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and reason logically

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Developmentally Appropriate Education

instruction felt to be adapted to the current developmental status of children (rather then to their age alone)

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Sign Systems

symbols that cultures create to help people think, communicate and solve problems

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Self Regulation

the ability to think and solve problems without the help of others

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Private Speech

children's self-talk, which guides their thinking and action; eventually internalized as silent inner speech

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Zone of Proximal Development

Level of development immediately above a persons present level

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Mediation

Exposing learners to more advanced ways of thinking and solving problems

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Scaffolding

support of learning and problem solving; might include clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner

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Emergent Literacy

Knowledge and skills relating to reading that children usually develop from experience with books and other print media before the beginning of formal reading instruction in school