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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Science Deck (30):
1

Homeostasis

Homeostasis: the maintenance of a relatively constant internal physiological environment of the body or part of the body (e.g. blood glucose level, pH, body temperature) in varying external conditions

2

Stimulus–response mode

Stimulus–response model: a system in which any changes or variations (stimuli) in the internal environment are detected (by receptors); if a response is required, this is communicated to effectors to bring about some type of change or correction so the conditions can be brought back to normal

3

Glucose

Glucose: a simple carbohydrate and the simplest form of sugar

4

Pancreas

Pancreas: a large gland in the body that produces and secretes the hormone insulin and an important digestive fluid containing enzymes

5

Insulin

Insulin: hormone that removes glucose from the blood and stores it as glycogen in the liver and muscles

6

Glycogen

Glycogen: the main storage carbohydrate in animals, converted from glucose by the liver and stored in the liver and muscle tissue

7

Oxytocin

Oxytocin: hormone secreted from the pituitary gland that assists in the formation of bonds between mothers and their babies, and perhaps between people in close relationships

8

Nervous system

Nervous system: the system of nerves and nerve centres in an animal in which messages are sent as an electrical and then a chemical impulse. It comprises the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.

9

Endocrine system

Endocrine system: the body system of glands that produce and secrete hormones into the bloodstream in order to regulate processes in various organs

10

Signalling molecules

Signalling molecules: a chemical involved in transmitting information between cells

11

Central nervous system

Central nervous system: the part of the nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord

12

Peripheral nervous system (PNS):

Peripheral nervous system (PNS): made up of sensory and motor neurons. It connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body, and detects and responds to change.

13

Sensory neurons

Sensory neurons: a nerve cell in the sense organs. It detects change in the environment and sends a message to the central nervous system.

14

Motor neurons

Motor neurons: the nerve cell that causes an organ, such as a muscle or gland, to respond to a stimulus

15

Neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitters: chemical released from the axon terminals into the synapse between your nerve cells (neurons) during a nerve impulse

16

Endocrine glands

Endocrine glands: organs that produce hormones. Endocrine glands release their hormones into the bloodstream for transport to target organs.

17

Hormones

Hormones: chemical substances produced by glands and circulated in the blood. Hormones have specific effects in the body.

18

Hormones

Hormones: chemical substances produced by glands and circulated in the blood. Hormones have specific effects in the body.

19

Thermoregulation

Thermoregulation: the control of body temperature

20

Thermostat

Thermostat: a device that establishes and maintains a desired temperature automatically

21

Multicellular organism

Multicellular organism: an organism that is composed of many cells. Most plants and animals are multicellular.

22

Positive feedback and negative feedback

Positive feed back is when you are working with the stimulus and negative is when you are working against he stimulus

23

Central nervous system

Central nervous system: the part of the nervous system composed of the brain and spinal cord

24

Peripheral nervous system

Peripheral nervous system (PNS): made up of sensory and motor neurons. It connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body, and detects and responds to change.

25

Neurons

Nerve cell

26

Nerves

Nerves: a bundle of neurons

27

Sensory neurons

Sensory neurons: a nerve cell in the sense organs. It detects change in the environment and sends a message to the central nervous system.

28

Interneurons

Interneurons: a nerve cell that carries nervous impulses through the central nervous system. They provide the link between sensory neurons and motor neurons.

29

Motor neurons

Motor neurons: the nerve cell that causes an organ, such as a muscle or gland, to respond to a stimulus

30

Nucleus

Nucleus: central part of an atom, made up of protons and neutrons; roundish structure inside a cell that acts as the control centre for the cell. Plural = nuclei.