Chapter 2: Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

Kinesiology Lecture > Chapter 2: Skeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2: Skeletal System Deck (25):
1

4 Functions of the Skeleton:

1. Gives support and shape to body
2. Protects vital organs
3. Assists in movement
4. Manufactures blood cells

2

Types of Skeletons

Axial and Appendicular (206 comes in body)

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Axial

- vertebrae, skull, ribs, breast bone
- 80 total

4

Appendicular

- upper and lower limbs, pelvic and pectoral girdle, attach to limbs
- 126 total

5

Types (composition) of bones

Compact bone and Cancellous bone

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Compact bone

- hard outer covering
Ex: Skin on a piece of fruit

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Cancellous

inside of the bone→ spongy bone, where bone marrow is found

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4 Structures of bone

Epiphysis, Epiphyseal plate, Diaphysis, Metaphysis

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Epiphysis

End of your bone, where bone attaches to another bone, where your joints are found

10

Epiphyseal Plate

- growth plate
- typically found on long bones like femur, radius

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Diaphysis

the shaft, makes up the majority of the bone

12

Metaphysis

where the end of the bone and the shaft of the bone meet, a flare

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Types of Bones

Long, Short, Flat, Irregular, Sesamoid

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Long

- at least twice as long as it is wide
ex: femur, also remember the bones in your finger and toes

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Short

short; carpal bones (wrist: 8)

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Flat

flat; ex: scapula (shoulder blade)

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Irregular

- irregularly shaped, different from others
ex: vertebrae

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Sesamoid

- bones found within a tendon
ex: patella (in quadriceps tendon)

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Common Skeletal Pathologies

Fracture, Osteoporosis, Osteomyelitis, Epiphyseal disorders

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Fracture

- a break in the integrity of a bone,
- Different types: open and closed

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Open Fracture

compound, bone fragments pierce the skin

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Closed Fracture

non-compound, bone fragments do not pierce the skin

23

Osteoporosis

- A condition where bones become thin or friable
- Both sexes but mainly in women→ because of the effects of estrogen
- After the age of late 40’s, bones become thin and break easily
- Other factors such as smoking and drinking can also lead to a higher risk

24

Osteomyelitis

- an infection in a bone, usually caused by a bacteria
- Most common reason is an ulcer (an open sore anywhere on body)

25

Epiphyseal disorders

- growth plate disorders; generally found in younger people
***EX) Osgood Schlatter: disorder of the proximal growth plate in your tibia, gives knee pain
- Bell and LT suffer from this
- 11-16 yrs old→ goes away eventually