Chapter 2- The Back Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2- The Back Deck (196)
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1

Consists of the posterior aspect of the body and provides the musculoskeletal acid of support for the body

The back

2

What are the parts of the back?

- vertebrae
-proximal elements of ribs
-superior aspects of pelvis
-posterior regions of base of skull
-various interconnecting muscles
-spinal cord
-proximal parts of spinal nerves

3

What are the functions of the back?

-support weight
-transmit forces
-carry and position head
-brace and help maneuver limbs

4

What are the curvatures of the vertebral column?

-primary curvature
-secondary curvature

5

Concave anteriorly; reflects original embryonic shape

Primary curvature

6

Concave posteriorly in cervical and lumbar regions; brings center of gravity into vertical line

Secondary curvature

7

What controls the movement of the back?

The extrinsic and intrinsic muscles

8

Move the limbs and ribs

Extrinsic muscles

9

Maintain posture and move the vertebral column: extension, flexion, lateral flexion, rotating

Intrinsic muscles

10

How restricted/unrestricted is movement of the back?

Movement between any 2 vertebrae is limited but effects between vertebrae are additive along the entire length of the vertebral column

11

Contains the spinal cord and proximal parts of the spinal nerves

The vertebral column

12

How many bones are in the vertebral column and what are the different regions?

Major bones = 33 vertebrae
-7 cervical
-12 thoracic
-5 lumbar
-5 sacral
-3/4 coccygeal

13

The sacral vertebrae are fused into 1 called the.....

Sacrum

14

Coccygeal vertebrae are rudimentary and are often fused into a single.....

Coccyx

15

Consists of body and arch

Typical vertebrae

16

What are vertebrae separated by?

Fibrocartilaginous intervertebral discs

17

Provides attachments for muscles and ligaments, levers of muscle actions, and sites of articulation for adjacent vertebrae

Vertebral arch

18

What are the other parts of typical vertebrae?

-Pedicles
-laminae
-vertebral canal
-spinous processes
-transverse processes
-superior and inferior articular facets

19

-superficial and intermediate group
-move the upper limb and thoracic wall
-intermediate group helps you breathe in and out
-innervated by anterior rami of spinal nerves
-have embryonic origins outside of the back
-develop from hypaxial muscles

Extrinsic muscles

20

-deep group; deep in position

-innervated by the posterior rami of spinal nerves

-move the head and vertebral column; helps you straighten out

-have embryonic origins in the back

-develop from epaxial muscles

Intrinsic muscles

21

Consists of vertebral bodies, intervertebral discs, and ligaments

Anterior walk of the vertebral column

22

Consists of vertebral arches and ligaments

Lateral walls and roof of the vertebral column

23

What are the 3 meninges that the spinal cord is covered by?

-dura mater
-arachnoid mater
-pia mater

24

Outermost and thickest meninges

Dura mater

25

Middle layer meninges

Arachnoid mater

26

Inner most meninges

Intimately associated with the spinal cord

Pia mater

27

How many spinal nerves are there and where do they emerge from?

31 pairs in segmental distribution

Emerge from the vertebral canal between Pericles of adjacent vertebrae

28

What are the different regions of spinal nerves?

-8 cervical (C1-C8)
-12 thoracic (t1-t12)
-5 lumbar (L1-L5)
-5 sacral (S1-S5)
-1 coccygeal (Co)

29

How do the spinal nerves attach to the spinal cord?

Via anterior and posterior root

30

Where do the spinal nerves go after exiting the spinal cord?

Each nerve branches into anterior and posterior ramus