Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life Deck (25):
1

Atom

The basic unit of matter

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Nucleus

Center of an atom

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Electron

A negatively charged particle

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Element

A pure substance that is made of only one kind of atom

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Isotopes

Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons

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Compound

A substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions

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Ionic bond

Chemical bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another

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Covalent bond

Type of bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared

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Molecule

Smallest unit of most compounds that displays all the properties of that compound

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Cohesion

The attraction between molecules of the same substance

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Adhesion

The force of attraction between different kinds of molecules

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Solution

A type of mixture in which all the components are evenly distributed

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Suspension

A mixture of water and nondissolved material

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Acid

A compound that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution; a solution with a pH LESS than 7

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Base

A compound that releases hydrogen ions (OH-) in a solution ; a solution with a pH MORE than 7

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Buffer

A compound that prevents sharp, sudden changes in pH

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Carbohydrate

A compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; a type of nutrient that is the main source of energy for the body

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Lipid

A macromolecule made mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes

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Nucleic acid

A macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus

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Protein

A macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by body for growth and repair

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Amino acid

A compound with an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other

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Chemical reaction

A process that changes one set of chemicals into another

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Activation energy

The energy that is needed to get a reaction started

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Catalyst

Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical process

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Enzyme

A protein catalyst that speeds up the rate of specific biological reactions