Chapter 2: The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: The Endocrine System Deck (70):
1

intracrine

peptide hormones or growth factors that bind and act inside cells either after internalization by the cells or retention in their cells synthesis

2

autocrine

pertaining to a signal secreted by a cell into the environment that affects the transmitting cell

3

paracrine

a form of cellular communication in which a cell releases a product that induces changes in a nearby cell

4

ectocrine

a parahormonal chemical substance that is secreted (usually by an invertebrate organism) into its immediate environment (air or water) which alters physiology or behavior of the recipient individual

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endocrinology

the scientific study of endocrine glands and their hormones

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neurohormone

a hormone that is released into the blood from a neurotransmitter rather than from an endocrine gland

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neurosecretory cells

a cell in the central nervous system that secretes its product beyond the synapse to affect function in other cells

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neuroendocrinology

the scientific study of the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system

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endocrine gland

a ductless gland from which hormones are released into the blood system in response to specific physiological signals

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exocrine gland

a gland that has a duct through which it is product is secreted into adjacent organs or the environment

11

vesicle

a secretory granule or sac within a cell in which hormones or neurotransmitter molecules are stored

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exocytosis

the extrusion of secretion of substance from a cell by the fusion of a vesicle membrane within the cell membrane

13

carrier protein

one of several different plasma proteins that bind to hormones of low solubility (primarily thyroid and steroid hormones), providing a transport system for them

14

hypothalamus

a part of the diencephalon located just below the thalamus that is important in the regulation of autonomic and endocrine function

15

pituitary gland

an endocrine gland that sits below the hypothalamus and has two distinct anatomical components, the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary, each derived from different embryological origins and having different functional roles in the endocrine system

16

thyroid gland

a doubled-lobed endocrine gland located on or near the trachea or esophagus in vertebrates that secretes several hormones important in metabolism, including trilodo-thyronine and thyroxine

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pancreas

a composite vertebrate bland with both endocrine and exocrine functions

18

adrenal glands

paired, dual compartment endocrine glands in vertebrates consisting of a medulla and a cortex

19

pineal gland

an endocrine gland (also called the epiphysis) located in mammals between the telencephalon and diencephalon, that secretes melatonin, a hormone important in the regulation of daily and seasonal cycles

20

gonad

an endocrine organ that produces sex steroids and gametes; the ovaries and testes are gonads

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testes

the male gonads, which produce steroid hormones and sperm

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ovaries

the female gonads, which produce estrogen, progestin and ova

23

placenta

a specialized organ produced by the mammalian embryo that is attached to the uterine wall and serves to provide nutrients, hormones and energy to the fetus

24

peptide hormones

a class of hormones consisting of a relative short chain of amino acids residues

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protein hormones

a class of hormones consisting of a long chain of amino acid residues

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biological half-life

the amount of time required to remove half of a hormone or other substance from the blood

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nuclei

a collection of nerve cell bodies in the brain

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neurosecretory cells

cells in the central nervous systems that secrete their products beyond the synapse to affect function in other cells

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dopamine

a neurotransmitter produced primarily in the forebrain and diencephalon that acts in the basal ganglia, olfactory system, and some parts of the cerebral cortex

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anterior pituitary

front part of the endocrine gland that extends from the base of the brain and secretes a number of tropic hormones in response to hormonal signals from the hypothalamus

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posterior pituitary

the rear part of the endocrine gland that extends from the base of the brain and stores and releases oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus

32

portal system

a special closed blood circuit in which two beds of capillaries are connected by a vein, thus the flow of blood is in one direction only

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releasing hormones

one of several polypeptides released from the hypothalamus that increase or decrease the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland

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tropic hormones

hormones from the anterior pituitary that stimulate various physiological processes, either by acting directly on target tissues or by causing other endocrine glands to release hormones

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prohormone

a molecule that can act as a hormone itself or can be converted into another hormone with different properties

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vasopressin/ antidiuretic hormone

also known as ADH. A nonapeptide released from the posterior pituitary gland that increases blood pressure during serious blood loss

37

follicles

an epithelial cell-lined sac or compartment of the thyroid gland, ovary, or other structure

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thyroxine (T4)

the primary hormone secreted from the thyroid gland; it acts to increase oxidation rates in tissues

39

triiodothyronine (T3)

A tyrosine-based hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland and acts to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis, and increase sensitivity to catecholamines

40

parathyroid gland

separate endocrine tissue associated with the thyroid gland; produces hormones involved in calcium metabolism

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islets of Langerhans

Islands of endocrine tissue nested throughout the exocrine tissue of the pancreas.

42

glucagon

a protein hormone that is secreted by the alpha-cells of the islets of Langerhans in response to low blood glucose levels

43

adrenal medulla

the inner portion of the endocrine organ that sits above the kidneys in vertebrates and secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.

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adrenal cortex

the outer layer(s) of the endocrine organ that sits above the kidneys in vertebrates and secretes steroid hormone

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chromaffin cells

cells that make and store epinephrine secretory vesicles

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zona glomerulosa

the outermost zone of the adrenal cortex, consisting of whorls fo epithelial cells. Aldosterone is released from these cells as an indirect response to low blood sodium levels

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zona fasciculata

the middle (and largest) zone of the adrenal cortex, consisting of orderly bands of epithelial cells. Glucocorticoid hormones are released from these cells in response at ACTH stimulation from the anterior pituitary

48

zona reticularis

the innermost zone of the adrenal cortex, consisting of disorganized arrangement of epithelial cells. Sex steroid hormones are often released from this zone

49

pinealocytes

the primary cells of the pineal gland that produce and secrete melatonin

50

steroid hormones

a class of structurally related fat-soluble chemicals that are often derived cholesterol and are characterized by three six-carbon rings plus one conjugated five-carbon ring

51

cholesterol

a white crystalline substance found in animal tissue, and an important part of cell membranes, cholesterol is precursor to steroid hormones

52

prenenolone

A C21 corticoid prohormone that is the obligatory precursor for all other steroid hormones in vertebrates

53

progestins

a class of C21 steroid hormones, so named for their progestational, or pregnancy-maintaining, effects in mammals

54

corticoids

a class of C21 steroid hormones secreted primarily from the adrenal cortices

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glucocorticoids

one of the two types of corticoids secreted from the adrenal cortices, often released in response to stressful stimuli

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mineralcorticoids

one of the two types of corticoids secreted from the adrenal cortices, important in ion exchanged and water metabolism

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corticosterone

glucocorticoid produced in the adrenal cortices of most rodents and birds

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cortisol

the principal glucocorticoid produced in the adrenal cortices of primates, including humans

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aldosterone

a mineralocorticoid that causes the kidneys to retain sodium

60

androgens

the primary steroidal product secreted from the testes

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testosterone

the primary androgen secreted by most vertebrate animals

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andostenedione

the primary sex hormone secreted by the human adrenal cortex

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aromatization

the process of converting an androgen molecule to an estrogen molecule via the enzyme aromatase

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neurosteroids

steroids that are synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous systems (PNS), independently of the steroidogenic activity of the endocrine glands

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monoamines

a hormone or neurotransmitter that contains one amine group

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catecholamines

hormones that are derived from tyrosine and secreted primarily from the adrenal medulla

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ephinephrine

a catecholamine produced in the adrenal medulla that increases cardiac tone and glucose levels

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norephinephrine

a substance that can act as either a hormone or neurotransmitter; secreted by the adrenal medulla and the nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous system

69

serotonin

a neurotransmitter from the tryptophan; the precursor to melatonin formation in the pineal gland

70

melatonin

an indoleamine hormone released by the pineal gland