Chapter 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality Deck (22):
1

the application of evolutionary biology to understanding the social behavior of animals, including humans

sociobiology

2

a theory that all living things have acquired their present forms through gradual changes in their genetic endowment over successive generations

evolution

3

a process in nature resulting in greater rates of survival of those plants and animals that are adapted to their environment

natural selection

4

a specific type of selection that creates differences between males and females

sexual selection

5

the study of psychological mechanisms that have been shaped by natural selection

evolutionary psychology

6

a psychological theory originated by Sigmund Freud; it contains a basic assumption that part of human personality is unconscious

psychoanalytic theory

7

in psychoanalytic theory, the term for the sex energy or sex drive

libido

8

according to Freud, the part of the personality containing the libido

id

9

according to Freud, the part of the personality that helps the person have realistic, rational interactions

ego

10

according to Freud, the part of the personality containing the conscience

superego

11

areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to sexual stimulation

erogenous zones

12

according to Freud, the sexual attraction of a little boy for his mother

Oedipus complex

13

according to Freud, the sexual attraction of a little girl for her father

Electra complex

14

the learning process in which a previously neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus) is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus that reflexively elicits an unconditioned response. Eventually the conditioned stimulus itself will evoke the response

classical conditioning

15

the process of changing the frequency of a behavior (the operant) by following it with positive reinforcement (which will make the behavior more frequent in the future) or punishment (which should make the behavior less frequent in the future)

operant conditioning

16

a set of operant conditioning techniques used to modify human behavior

behavior modification

17

the process of repeatedly pairing a behavior with an aversive stimulus, leading to a decline in the frequency of the behavior

extinction

18

a sense of competence at performing an activity

self-efficacy

19

a theory, based on the principle of reinforcement, that assumes that people will choose actions that maximize rewards and minimize costs

social exchange theory

20

a general knowledge framework that a person has about a particular topic

schema

21

the process by which certain sexual behaviors or conditions are defined in terms of health and illness, and problematic experiences or practices are given medical treatment

medicalization of sexuality

22

a theory based on the premise that hyman nature and the social order are products of communication among people

symbolic interaction theory