Chapter 2 - Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality Deck (46):

Define Sociobiology

Application of evolutionary biology to understanding the social behaviour of animals, including humans. It's the idea that some behaviours are a result of evolution


How is dating and becoming engaged biologically produced?

They serve the same function as courtship rituals in other speciies to allow potential mates to assesss each others fitness


Define sexual selection

Selection that results from differences in traits affectin access to mates


Define evolutionary psychology

Study of psychological mechanisms that have been shaped by natural selection


What is the pschoanalytic theory?

Psychological theory by sigmund freud that has a basic assumption that part of human personality is unconscious. So since Freud saw sex as one key force, it give full treatment to human sexuality


Who termed libido



What did freud consider the two major forces motivating human behaviour?

Libido and Thanatos (death instinct)


Define libido

It is the term for sex energy or drive in psychoanalytic theory


What is "Id" and "Ego" and "superego" that freud coined

Id is part of personality containing libido

and Ego is the part of peronslaity that helps the person have realistic, rational interactions keeping Id in line

and Superego is the conscience that contains our values and ideals of society


What does superego run on and aims to do

It runs on idealism and aims to inhibit the impulses of the id and to persuade the ego to strive for moral goals rather than realistic ones


Use the sexually frustrated woman story to explain id, ego, and superego

To illustrate the operation of these three compo-
nents of the personality in a sexual situation, consider
the case of the CEO of a corporation who is at a meeting
of the board of directors; the meeting is also attended
by her gorgeous, muscular, hot colleague. She looks
at him, and her id says, “He’s a real hottie. I want to
throw him on the table and make love to him imme-
diately. Let’s do it!” The ego intervenes and says, “We
can’t do it now because the other members of the board
are also here. Let’s wait until 5 p.m., when they’re all
gone, and then do it.” The superego says, “I shouldn’t
make love to this hot guy at all because I’m a married
woman.” What actually happens? It depends on the rel-
ative strengths of this woman’s id, ego, and superego.


What are erogenous zones?

These are areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to sexual stimulation


What is the Oedipus complex?

Freud said this the sexual attraction of a little boy for his mother


What is the femal oedipus complex?

Freud said this the sexual attraction of a little girl for her father, sometimes called the Electra complex


Talk about Freuds views of psychosexual development stages

Well, he says theres three big stages

1. Oral stage of mouth stim from birth to 1 years
2. Anal stage is about elmination at year 2
3. Phallic stage is till 5 or 6 and interest in genitals where oedipus complex comes in (weird guy)
4. Latency until adolescents
5. Genital stage after puberty (yay sex)


What is operant conditioning?

changing frequency of a behaviour (operant) by following it with positive reinforcement or punishment


What is behaviour therapy?

Set of techniques based on principles of classical or operant conditining used to modify human behaviour


How would imitating Brad Pitts "game" and actually getting girls demonstrate self-efficacy?

Because if it works it gives a sense of competence at performing an activity


What is social exchange theory?

Theory that assumes people will choose actions that maximize rewards and minimize costs


What is cognitive theory?

Instead of observing peoples behaviours to study them, they had to respect that those people perceive and think, and that it is important to also study cognitions


What is Gender Schema Theory?

That we all have gender schemas, which are congitive structures comprised of the set of attributes (behaviours, personality, appearance) that we associate with males and females


Sociologists approach the study of sexuality with what three basic assumptions?

1. Every society regulates the sexuality of its members
2. Basic institutions of society (such as religion and the family) affect rules governing sexuality
3. The appropriateness or inapproriatness of a sex behaviour depends on culture in which it occurs


What is the rational ideology of family?

That if the relationship was loving, sex outside of marriage or same sex was a-ok


Explain the medicalization of sexuality

Where certain sexual behaviours are defined in terms of health or illness, anything problematic or unique is given medical treatment


Theories of sexuality typically attempt to explain what __ things?

1. What motivates sexual desire
2. Subjective sexual experience
3. Avoidance or inhibitions around sexuality
4. The diversity of stimuli and intensity of sexual response
5. "sex prints - inntate" blueprints for orientation, disire and behaviour
6. Meaning of sexual behaviour
7. Cultural diversity in all things sexual
8. Power and plasticity of sex


What did the mars vs. venus study find?

That men and women aren't categorically different. Of course they are in things such as physical things, but personality they aren't categorically different.

Ex. is a man being good at math and science, but not masculine. Or a woman who is typically feminine, but good at math and science and sports


What was sexual theories in the medieval period like?

-Dominated by religious and social sanction

-biological determinism prevailed, sex was bodily function

-intellectual growth emphasized over pleasures of flesh

-Dominated by theologians, lust was evil and sex was original sin

-Philosophers were misogynistic and promoted subjugation of women


What are the two evolutionary perspectives about sex?

Sociobiology and evolutionary psychology


What are the levels of conscious and unconsciousness of id, ego, and superego?

So most of your personality is unconscious being id, then ego is somewhat conscious, and superego is just a bit less conscious than ego


For Freuds libido theory:
sexual fulfilment = ______ = increased pleasure

sexual fulfilment = reduced tension = increased pleasure


What are the 4 critical points against Freuds sex stuff?

1. Male Bias - as norm
2. Is libido really an innate drive or instinct?
3. Sex drive might be instinct, but route to satisfy is learned
4. Libido is an unproven construct based on 19th century models


What does the teacher really want us to know about Freud?

He opened the conversation to sex and childhood sexuality


What is social learning?

Imitation, identification, self-efficacy

These three stages will be on test/quiz

So from trying to be something, then identifying with it, than believing in yourself


Define sexual scripts

Defines the appropriate sequence and conventionality of sexual behaviour


What is the Reiss Sociological Theory of Sexuality?

Cross-cultural universal of the importance of sexuality
-its associated with pleasure
sexual interactions are associated wit personal self-discolusure of body, thoughts and feelings

-Sexuality is linked to structures of kingship, power and social ideology


What are three points to what social exchange theory is?

1. People choose things that maximize rewards and minize costs

2. There are perceived comparison levels of outcomes, equity, and sexual rewards and costs

3. These perceived comparison levels influence satisfaction, stability, and changes in relationships


What are 4 levels of sociological perspectives analysis?

1. Macro-society
2. Cultural
3. Inter-personal
4. Individual


What are 5 social institutions that influence our sociological perspectives?

1. religion
2. Economics
3. Family
4. Medicine
5. Laws


How does religion shape our sex?

shapes norms


How does economics shape our sex?

effects patterns


How does family influence sex

socializes childrnes


How does medicine influence esx>

Define sexual and reproductive health


What does law influence sex?

determine norms and use social control


What is the symbolic interaction theory?

Theory that proposes human nature and the social order are products of communciation among people


According to Reiss's sociological theory, why is sex important?

It is associated with great physical pleasure and self-disclosure


Social exchange theory highlights what in relationships?

The role of rewards and costs in relationships

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