Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality Deck (46):
Application of evolutionary biology to understanding the social behaviour of animals, including humans. It's the idea that some behaviours are a result of evolution
How is dating and becoming engaged biologically produced?
They serve the same function as courtship rituals in other speciies to allow potential mates to assesss each others fitness
Define sexual selection
Selection that results from differences in traits affectin access to mates
Define evolutionary psychology
Study of psychological mechanisms that have been shaped by natural selection
What is the pschoanalytic theory?
Psychological theory by sigmund freud that has a basic assumption that part of human personality is unconscious. So since Freud saw sex as one key force, it give full treatment to human sexuality
Who termed libido
What did freud consider the two major forces motivating human behaviour?
Libido and Thanatos (death instinct)
It is the term for sex energy or drive in psychoanalytic theory
What is "Id" and "Ego" and "superego" that freud coined
Id is part of personality containing libido
and Ego is the part of peronslaity that helps the person have realistic, rational interactions keeping Id in line
and Superego is the conscience that contains our values and ideals of society
What does superego run on and aims to do
It runs on idealism and aims to inhibit the impulses of the id and to persuade the ego to strive for moral goals rather than realistic ones
Use the sexually frustrated woman story to explain id, ego, and superego
To illustrate the operation of these three compo-
nents of the personality in a sexual situation, consider
the case of the CEO of a corporation who is at a meeting
of the board of directors; the meeting is also attended
by her gorgeous, muscular, hot colleague. She looks
at him, and her id says, “He’s a real hottie. I want to
throw him on the table and make love to him imme-
diately. Let’s do it!” The ego intervenes and says, “We
can’t do it now because the other members of the board
are also here. Let’s wait until 5 p.m., when they’re all
gone, and then do it.” The superego says, “I shouldn’t
make love to this hot guy at all because I’m a married
woman.” What actually happens? It depends on the rel-
ative strengths of this woman’s id, ego, and superego.
What are erogenous zones?
These are areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to sexual stimulation
What is the Oedipus complex?
Freud said this the sexual attraction of a little boy for his mother
What is the femal oedipus complex?
Freud said this the sexual attraction of a little girl for her father, sometimes called the Electra complex
Talk about Freuds views of psychosexual development stages
Well, he says theres three big stages
1. Oral stage of mouth stim from birth to 1 years
2. Anal stage is about elmination at year 2
3. Phallic stage is till 5 or 6 and interest in genitals where oedipus complex comes in (weird guy)
4. Latency until adolescents
5. Genital stage after puberty (yay sex)
What is operant conditioning?
changing frequency of a behaviour (operant) by following it with positive reinforcement or punishment
What is behaviour therapy?
Set of techniques based on principles of classical or operant conditining used to modify human behaviour
How would imitating Brad Pitts "game" and actually getting girls demonstrate self-efficacy?
Because if it works it gives a sense of competence at performing an activity
What is social exchange theory?
Theory that assumes people will choose actions that maximize rewards and minimize costs
What is cognitive theory?
Instead of observing peoples behaviours to study them, they had to respect that those people perceive and think, and that it is important to also study cognitions
What is Gender Schema Theory?
That we all have gender schemas, which are congitive structures comprised of the set of attributes (behaviours, personality, appearance) that we associate with males and females
Sociologists approach the study of sexuality with what three basic assumptions?
1. Every society regulates the sexuality of its members
2. Basic institutions of society (such as religion and the family) affect rules governing sexuality
3. The appropriateness or inapproriatness of a sex behaviour depends on culture in which it occurs
What is the rational ideology of family?
That if the relationship was loving, sex outside of marriage or same sex was a-ok
Explain the medicalization of sexuality
Where certain sexual behaviours are defined in terms of health or illness, anything problematic or unique is given medical treatment
Theories of sexuality typically attempt to explain what __ things?
1. What motivates sexual desire
2. Subjective sexual experience
3. Avoidance or inhibitions around sexuality
4. The diversity of stimuli and intensity of sexual response
5. "sex prints - inntate" blueprints for orientation, disire and behaviour
6. Meaning of sexual behaviour
7. Cultural diversity in all things sexual
8. Power and plasticity of sex
What did the mars vs. venus study find?
That men and women aren't categorically different. Of course they are in things such as physical things, but personality they aren't categorically different.
Ex. is a man being good at math and science, but not masculine. Or a woman who is typically feminine, but good at math and science and sports
What was sexual theories in the medieval period like?
-Dominated by religious and social sanction
-biological determinism prevailed, sex was bodily function
-intellectual growth emphasized over pleasures of flesh
-Dominated by theologians, lust was evil and sex was original sin
-Philosophers were misogynistic and promoted subjugation of women
What are the two evolutionary perspectives about sex?
Sociobiology and evolutionary psychology
What are the levels of conscious and unconsciousness of id, ego, and superego?
So most of your personality is unconscious being id, then ego is somewhat conscious, and superego is just a bit less conscious than ego
For Freuds libido theory:
sexual fulfilment = ______ = increased pleasure
sexual fulfilment = reduced tension = increased pleasure
What are the 4 critical points against Freuds sex stuff?
1. Male Bias - as norm
2. Is libido really an innate drive or instinct?
3. Sex drive might be instinct, but route to satisfy is learned
4. Libido is an unproven construct based on 19th century models
What does the teacher really want us to know about Freud?
He opened the conversation to sex and childhood sexuality
What is social learning?
Imitation, identification, self-efficacy
These three stages will be on test/quiz
So from trying to be something, then identifying with it, than believing in yourself
Define sexual scripts
Defines the appropriate sequence and conventionality of sexual behaviour
What is the Reiss Sociological Theory of Sexuality?
Cross-cultural universal of the importance of sexuality
-its associated with pleasure
sexual interactions are associated wit personal self-discolusure of body, thoughts and feelings
-Sexuality is linked to structures of kingship, power and social ideology
What are three points to what social exchange theory is?
1. People choose things that maximize rewards and minize costs
2. There are perceived comparison levels of outcomes, equity, and sexual rewards and costs
3. These perceived comparison levels influence satisfaction, stability, and changes in relationships
What are 4 levels of sociological perspectives analysis?
What are 5 social institutions that influence our sociological perspectives?
How does religion shape our sex?
How does economics shape our sex?
How does family influence sex
How does medicine influence esx>
Define sexual and reproductive health
What does law influence sex?
determine norms and use social control
What is the symbolic interaction theory?
Theory that proposes human nature and the social order are products of communciation among people
According to Reiss's sociological theory, why is sex important?
It is associated with great physical pleasure and self-disclosure