Chapter 2 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Vocab Deck (48):
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Response

A specific instance of behavior

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Behavior

Portion of organisms interaction with its environment that results In measurable change in at least one aspect of the environment

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Response class

A group of responses with the same function.

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Repertoire

All of the behaviors a person can do.
The set of knowledge a person has learned that is relevant to their environment.

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Environment

Everything except the moving parts of the organism that is involved with the behavior

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Stimulus

An energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells

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Stimulus class

Any group of stimuli sharing a predetermined set of common elements including: physical features (formally) , when it happens( temporally ) and the effects it has on behavior (functionality).

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Antecedent

The stimulus change that happens before the behavior

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Consequence

A stimulus change that occurs after the behavior

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Reflex

A stimulus response relation that is unconditioned

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Respondent behavior

A behavior that is elicited by antecedent stimuli

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Habituation

Gradually diminishing response strength.

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Respondent conditioning

A stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure in which a neutral stimulus is paired with a unconditioned stimulus until the neutral stimulus elicits the conditioned response

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Stimulus-stimulus pairing

Two stimuli are presented at the same time, repeatedly

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Unconditioned stimulus

A stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any learning

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Neutral stimulus

A stimulus change that does not elicit respondent behavior

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Conditioned stimulus

A formerly neutral stimulus that elicits respondent behavior after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus

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Respondent extinction

Repeatedly presenting a conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus until it no longer elicits a conditioned response

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Higher order conditioning

A conditioned stimulus can can be established with stimulus-stimulus pairing of neutral stimulus and conditioned stimulus

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Operant Behavior

Any behavior whose future frequency depends on the past consequences.

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Selection by consequences

Evolution of a species through selection with respect to function ( consequences). Behavior is selected , shaped and maintained through these consequences.

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Ontogeny

Individual organism

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Phylogeny

Species

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Reinforcer

A stimulus change that increases the future frequency of the behavior that precedes it.

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Punisher

A stimulus change that occurs and decreases the future frequency of the behavior it is preceded by.

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Automaticity of reinforcement

Behavior is modified by consequences regardless if the subject knows they are being reinforced.

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Positive reinforcement

When behavior increases as a result of an added stimulus after a behavior

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Reinforcment

A behavior is followed by a stimulus change that increases the frequency of the occurrence in the future.

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Negative reinforcement

When the occurrence of behavior increases after the withdrawal of a stimulus after a behavior

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Aversive stimulus

A stimulus condition whose termination is reinforcing.

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Punishment

When a stimulus change occurs after a behavior that decreases the future frequency of the behavior

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Unconditioned reinforcer

A Stimulus change that increases he future frequency of behavior without pairing.

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Motivating operations

Momentary effectiveness of a reinforce

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Deprivation

Being without a reinforcer or stimulus for a given time, which leaves it to be desired

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Satiation.

Have a plethora of a reinforcer or stimulus to a point where no more is desired.

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Conditioned Punisher

A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing

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Conditioned Reflex

a learned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the response it elicits.

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Conditioned Reinforcer

a stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing

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Contingency

Dependent and/pr temporal relations between operant behavior and its controlling variables.

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Discriminated operant

an operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions that under others

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Discriminative Stimulus (sd)

A stimulus in the presence of which responses of some type have been reinforced, and in the absence have not been reinforced.

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Extinction

When a behavior no longer gains reinforcement

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history of reinforcement

Referring, in general, to all the reinforcement and learning history in a person's life.

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Operant Conditioning

The Basic process by which operant learning occurs. Consequences result in an increased or decreased frequency of behavior in the future.

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Principle of behavior

A statement describing a functional relation between behavior and one or more of it's controlling variables with generality across organisms.

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stimulus control

A situation where the frequency/duration/amplitude, etc. of a behavior is altered by the presence or absence of a stimulus.

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three-term contingency

Antecedent-behavior-consequence

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Unconditioned punisher

A punisher that does not require a learning history.