Chapter 2 - Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Vocabulary Deck (22):
1

What is an autotroph?

An organism that makes its own food

2

What is a heterotroph?

An organism that cannot make its own food.

3

What are pigments?

colored chemical compounds that absorb light

4

What is chlorophyll?

The main photosynthetic pigment in chloroplasts

5

What is chloroplast?

green organelles inside plant cells

6

What is stomata?

small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

7

What is Respiration?

The process by which cells obtain energy from glucose

8

What is photosynthesis?

The process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food

9

What is cytoplasm?

The region between the cell membrane and the nucleus
In organisms without a nucleus, the region located inside the cell membrane

10

What is mitochondria?

Rod shaped cell structures that convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions

11

What is fermentation?

An energy releasing process that does not require oxygen

12

What is cell cycle?

the regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo

13

What is interphase?

The first stage of the cell cycle, the period before cell division

14

What is replication?

When the cell makes an exact copy of the DNA in its nucleus

15

What is mitosis?

the second stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into 2 new nuclei. One copy of the DNA is distributed into each of the 2 daughter cells.

16

What is chromosomes?

double rod structures formed from threadlike chromatin in the nucleus during prophase

17

What is cytokinesis?

The final stage of the cell cycle where the cytoplasm divides and the organelles are distributed into each of the two new cells.

18

What is DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid - the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring

19

What is cancer?

A disease in which cells grow uncontrollably, damaging parts of the body around them.

20

What is mutation?

the damage that causes a change in the DNA

21

What is a tumor?

A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide and grow uncontrollably

22

What is chemotherapy?

another form of cancer treatment that uses drugs to slow the growth or kill cancer cells.