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Flashcards in Chapter 20 Deck (42):
1

Abscess formation

bacteria in an abscess are in the stationary phase of growth and less susceptible to the actions of chemotherapeutic agents.  

Toxin production

Tissue damage

2

Acyclovir

Guanine nucleosideanalog

3

Agar diffusion test

test against a pure culture of the microorganism
a. if there is not time an Empirical Therapy is administered - based on previous experience
 
  b. calculate the most effective concentration
     . dependent on the location of the infection

c. patient history - prevention of allergic or toxic reactions

4

Alexander Flemmings

Penicillin

5

Allergic Reaction

are different than toxicity.

    a. caused by an over active immune response

    b. only causes a response in certain individuals

 

6

Aminoglycosides

- interfere with translation
a. severe side effects due to toxicity to small eukaryotic ribosomes

  b. neomycin –topical use

7

AmphoterianB

-fungicidal antibiotic
    a. same action as nystatin.

    b. used for systemic fungal infections.

8

Antagonism

9

CEPHALOSPORINASE

BREAKS THE BETA LACTAM RING

10

CEPHALOSORIN

BACTERICIDAL ANTIBOTIC

(BETA LACTAM GROUP)

11

CEPHALOSPORUIM

THE BACTERIA THAT PRODUCES THE NATURAL CEPHALOSPORIN

12

CHEMOTHERAPEUTICS

CHEMICAL AGENTS THAT SELECTIVELY INTERFERE

WITH THE GROWTH OF MICRORGANISMS THAT MAY

BE TAKEN INTERNALLY

13

CHLORAMPHENICOL

BACTERIOSTATIC ANTIBIOTIC

SOME SIDE EFFECTS

SMALL MOLECULE W/ BROAD SPECTRUM

PENETRATES BETTER TO GET TO RIBOSOME

14

 

CLAVULINIC ACID

 

AGENTS THAT INTERFERE WITH BETA LACTMASE ACTIVITY

15

COMPETITIVE INHIBITOR

 

TARGET METABOLIC FUNCTIONS ESSENTIAL TO

MICROBES

16

 

COMPLEMENTARY

 

SYNERGISM

WORK TOGETHER

BOOST EACH OTHER

17

COMPLICATIONS

DIRECT TOXIC EFFECTS OR ALLERGIES

RESISTANCE DEVELOPED

DEVELOPED THROUGH MUTATIONS OR R-PLASMIDS

MUST WEIGH AGAINST POSITIVE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT

18

DRUG ANTAGONISM

BAD

WORKS AGAINST EACH OTHER

 

19

Name 6 chemotherapeutics that are cell wall inhibitors

1.Penicllin

2.Cephalosporin

3. Carbapenems

4. Monobactams

5.  Bacitracin

6. Vancomycin

20

Name 5 chemotherapeutics that are 70S ribosomes inhibitors

1. Chloramphenicols

2.  Tetracycline

3.  Aminoglycosides ( Neomycin & Streptomycin)

4.  Macrolides

5. Streptogramins

21

Name 4  chemotherapeutics that cause injury to the plasma membrane

1. Polymyxin B

2.  Nystatin

3. Amphotericin B ( polyenes)

4.  Azoles and Triazoles

22

Name 4 chemotherapeutics that deal with the inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis

1. Rifamycins

2.  Quinolones & Flurorquinolones

3.  Nucleoside analogs

4.  Antisense molecules

23

Name 3 chemotherapeutics that deal with the inhibition of specific enzymatic activity

1.  Sulonamides

2.  Protease inhibitors

3.  Neuraminidase inhibitors

24

Name 3 problems with delay

1. absecess formation

2. toxin production

3.. tissue damage

25

Penicillian works best aginst gram ____?____ organisms

Positive +

26

Most of the available antimicrobial agents are effective against
A) Viruses.   
B) Bacteria.  
C) Fungi
D) Protozoa
E) All of the above  .

B) Bacteria.

27

In what way are semisynthetic penicillins and natural penicillins alike?


A) Both are broad spectrum.

B) Both are resistant to penicillinase.

C) Both are resistant to stomach acids.

D) Both are based on β-lactam.

D) Both are based on β-lactam.

28

Which of the following antibiotics is NOT bactericidal?
         

 A) Aminoglycosides

B) Rifampins

                                 C) Cephalosporins                                  

 D) Penicillin

E) Polyene

A) Aminoglycosides

29

Which one of the following does NOT belong with the others?


A) Bacitracin 

B) Penicillin

            C) Cephalosporin              

     D) Streptomycin

    E)Monobactam

D) Streptomycin

30

Which of these antimicrobial agents has the fewest side effects?

A) Streptomycin  

B) Erythromycin  

C) Tetracycline

D) Chloramphenicol

E) Penicillin

E) Penicillin

31

Which of the following antibiotics is recommended for use against gram-negative bacteria?

A) Polyenes     

B) Penicillin   

C) Bacitracin

D) Polymyxin

E)Cephalosporin

D) Polymyxin

32

Which of the following antimicrobial agents is recommended for use against fungal infections? 

A) Amphotericin B   

B) Penicillin

C) Bacitracin
  
D) Polymyxin

E) Cephalosporin

A) Amphotericin B

33

Which of the following antibiotics does NOT interfere with cell wall synthesis?

A) Cephalosporins    

B) Semisynthetic penicillins

C) Macrolides

D) Vancomycin

E) Natural penicillins

C) Macrolides

34

The antimicrobial drugs with the broadest spectrum of activity are

A) Aminoglycosides.   

B) Macrolides.  

C) Chloramphenicol

D) Tetracyclines.

E) Lincomycin

E) Lincomycin

35

Protozoan and helminthic diseases are difficult to treat because

A) Their cells are structurally and functionally similar to human cells.

B) They replicate inside human cells.

C) They don't have ribosomes.

D) They don't reproduce.

E) They have more genes than bacteria.

A) Their cells are structurally and functionally similar to human cells

36

Which of the following statements about drug resistance is false?

A) It may be carried on a plasmid.

B) It may be transferred from one bacterium to another during conjugation.

C) It may be due to enzymes that degrade some antibiotics.

D) It is found only in gram-negative bacteria.

E) It may be due to increased uptake of a drug.

D) It is found only in gram-negative bacteria

37

Which of the following does NOT constitute an advantage of using two antibiotics together?

A) It can prevent drug resistance.

B) It lessens the toxicity of individual drugs.

C) Two are always twice as effective as one.

D) It allows treatment to be provided prior to diagnosis.

E) All of the above are advantages.

C) Two are always twice as effective as one.

38

Drug resistance occurs

A) Because bacteria are normal microbiota.

B) When antibiotics are used indiscriminately.

C) Against antibiotics and not against synthetic chemotherapeutic agents.

D) When antibiotics are taken after the symptoms disappear.

E) All of the above.

B) When antibiotics are used indiscriminately.

39

Which of the following would be selective against the tubercle bacillus?


A) Bacitracin – inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis

B) Ethambutol – inhibits mycolic acid synthesis

C) Streptogramin – inhibits protein synthesis

D) Streptomycin – inhibits protein synthesis

E) Vancomycin – inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis

B) Ethambutol – inhibits mycolic acid synthesis

40

 In the presence of penicillin, a cell dies because
A) It lacks a cell wall.     

B) It undergoes osmotic lysis.  

C) Its contents leak out.

D) It placmolyzes

E) It lacks a cell membrane.

B) It undergoes osmotic lysis.

41

Which of the following does NOT affect eukaryotic cells?

A) Antiprotozoan drugs 

B) Antifungal drugs   

C) Semisynthetic penicillins

D) Antihelminthic drugs

E) Nucleotide analogs

E) Nucleotide analogs

42

A.M.

Table 20.2
The following results were obtained from a disk diffusion test for microbial
susceptibility to antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus was the test organism.

Antibiotic Zone of Inhibition
A 3 mm
B 7 mm
C  0 mm
D 10 mm

30) In Table 20.2, the most effective antibiotic tested was
A) A.   B) B.   C) C.   D) D.  E) Can't tell.

 

Answer:  D  The agent with the largest zone of inhibition is the most effective.