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Flashcards in chapter 20, 21 EXAM Deck (44):
1

montreal protocol

1987: cut emissions of cfc's by about 35% between 1989 and 2000.

2

IPCC
intergovernmental panel of climate change

a group of scientists that document past climate change in order to protect future climate change

3

forest fires

natural source of air pollution because it releases carbon dioxide and particulate matter into the atmosphere

4

natural causes for the depletion of the stratosphere

-volcanic eruptions
-sun spots
-stratospheric winds

5

anthropogenic causes for the depletion of the stratosphere

CFC's:
-air conditioning
-refrigerators
-aerosol cans

6

ground level ozone / tropospheric ozone

-O3
-powerful respiratory irritant (HURTS US)
-precursor to secondary air pollutant
-formed with nitrogen oxides, heat, sunlight and VOCs
-MAJOR component of smog

7

global climate change

any change in the climate of the earth

8

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

- main ozone-depleting compound (chlorine)
-organic compounds made up of atoms of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine

-released from AC, fridge, aerosol cans, bubbles in plastic foam

-chlorine + ozone = depletion of stratosphere

-nonreactive, odorless, nonflammable, nontoxic + noncorrosive
-inexpensive (why it was used in so many products)
-lowers the average concentration of ozone in the stratosphere
-insoluble in water and chemically unreactive and can last in stratosphere for 65-365 years.

9

Carbon Dioxide

-CO2
-colorless, oderless
- released from combustion and respiration
-MAJOR greenhouse gas w largest concentration
-controlled by the carbon cycle
-oceans are a global sink for carbon dioxide
(oceans are releasing co2 back into atmosphere bc they can not absorb any more)

10

Carbon Monoxide

-CO
-colorless and odorless
-dangerous indoor pollutant
- released from vehicle emission
-attaches to hemoglobin in blood so oxygen cannot be transported though veins
-NOT A PRODUCT OF RESPIRATION! it is a product of incomplete combustion

11

Mercury

-Hg
-bioaccumulates in marine food chain
-in coal, oil, and gold mining
-air pollutant that is a metal and is released primarily from the combustion of coal

12

Ozone

-O3 SECONDARY POLLUTANT
troposphere ozone:
-BAD
-respiratory irrtant
-ground level HARMS

stratospheric ozone:
-GOOD
-protects from UV rays

13

Nitrous Oxide

-(N20)
-human sources: fossil fuel burning, fertilizers, livestock wastes and nylon products
-Average time in troposphere: 114-120 yrs
-greenhouse gas that exists naturally

14

Nitrogen Dioxide

-formed when nitrogen and oxygen react as a result to high temperatures (combustion engines)
-secondary pollutant
-component of smog and acid precipitation

15

Nitrogen

-N
-78% of the air in atmosphere
-two atoms of nitrogen combine to form a gaseous molecule known as N2
-not considered a greenhouse gas

16

Oxygen

-21% of air in atmosphere
-most of the oxygen gas in the atmosphere exists as O2 but a small amount (in the stratosphere) exists as O3

17

Asbestos

-fibrous material
-resistant to heat and fire
-used in industries
-INDOOR POLLUTANT

18

Radon

-radon-222
-a radioactive gas found in some soil and rocks, can seep into some houses (INDOOR POLLUTANT) and increase the risk of lung cancer
-you can't see, taste, or smell
- produced by the natural radioactive decay of uranium-238

19

lead

-Pb
-smelting
-trace metal in rocks and soil
-formerly put in paint and gas to improve performance
-travels air worldwide
-biomagnified
-affects nervous system (mental)
-one of the air pollutants specified under the Clean Air Act

20

Which are the 6 criteria air pollutants as specified under the Clean Air Act?

1. carbon monoxide : CO
2. lead : Pb
3. ozone : O3
4. nitrogen dioxide: NO3
5. sulfur dioxide: SO2
6. particulate matter

21

formaldehyde

-chemical that causes most people in developed countries difficulty
-found in a variety of common materials and household products, can cause a number of health problems
-colorless, extremely irritating gas widely used to manufacture common household materials

-causes chronic breathing problems, dizziness, rash, headaches, sore throat, sinus and eye irritation, wheezing, and nausea from daily exposure to low levels

-in building materials , furniture, drapes, upholstery, adhesives in carpeting and wallpaper, urethane-formaldehdye insulation, fingernail hardener, wrinkle free coating or permanent-press clothing (INDOOR POLLUTANT

22

Sulfur Dioxide

-SO2
-high odor, colorless, suffocating and corrosive gas
-respiratory irritant
-results from combustion of coal and oil, metal smelting and paper pulping
-scrubbers are placed in coal-burning plants to reduce the amt.
-
-emitted into the troposphere when metal sulfide ores are roasted or smelted to convert a metal ore to a free metal
-it can adversely affect plant tissue

-indoor pollutant: gas heaters, improperly vented gas ranges and tobacco smoke

23

Particulate matter

-Pm
-solid or liquid particle in air
-combustion, road dust, forest fires
-respiratory irritants
-one of the air pollutants specified under the CAA

examples: soot, sulfate aerosols

24

Polar Bears

-affected from global warming due to the increase of sea levels and decrease of ice caps and glaciers
-large amounts are dying off because habitat destruction
-Global warming poses the greatest threat to polar bears

25

air pollution

the presence of chemicals in the atmosphere in concentration high enough to affect climate and harm organisms and materials

-excess heat and noise are considered air pollution

26

troposphere

-innermost layer of the atmosphere
-made up if nitrogen and oxygen (small amounts of carbon dioxide and water vapor)
-chemical cycling of nutrients
-weather conditions (climate and short-term weather)
-heated by infrared radiation
-o3 here is an irritant "bad ozone"
-2 smog

27

stratosphere

-ozone located here (protects form harmful UV rays)
-filters "good ozone"

28

mesosphere

-extends 50-85 km from earth (53 miles)
-meteors burn here

29

thermosphere

-thinnest gas layer
-ionization and absorption of particles
-radio waves!

30

exosphere

-outermost layer of the atmosphere

31

acid deposition

-sulfur dioxide + nitrogen oxide -> sulfur and nitric acid -> acid precipitation

-regional air pollution problem where there are coal-burning facilitates and a large amount of vehicles (ohio valley, USA)

effects :
-human respiratory diseases such as asthma and bronchitis
-toxic metals (lead and copper) leach from pipes into drinking water
-damages statues, monuments and buildings
-acidity in water causes fish population to die
-build-up of sulfur and nitrogen ions in soil
-increasing aluminum in soil and water

32

photochemical smog

-forms in hot, sunny, urban areas
-NOx, VOCs and ozone
-LA and Athens, Greece

33

anthropogenic causes of greenhouse gases

-burning fossil fuels
-agricultural practices: overirrigation and feedlots produce methane
-deforestation: releases methane from decomposition and carbon dioxide
-landfill: decomposition = methane
-industrial productions = cfcs

34

natural causes of greenhouse gases

-volcanoes: carbon dioxide
-decomposition: methane
-denitrification: NOx
-water vapor

35

thermal inversion

-a warm layer of air is ABOVE a cold , dense layer, trapping pollutants under it.

emissions accumulate beneath it (LA and Mexico City)
-sign of thermal inversion: city between two mountains

36

smog (industrial smog / gray smog)

-London
-causes tuberculous, heart failure and bronchitis
-formed with CO and CO2 are combined with particulate matter (sulfur dioxide can also be part of this)

37

heat island effect

-result of THERMAL POLLUTION
-urban areas that have the heat absorbing ability because of the buildings, concrete and asphalt which radiate the heat they absorb

-increases the rates of photochemical reactions which results in photochemical smog

38

noise pollution

-any noise that causes stress or has the potential to damage human health

-U.S Noise control act: EPA set up emission standards
-Quiet Communities Act: federal research and activities to research noise pollution

39

antartica and ozone levels

-holes in stratosphere over the poles which increases the amount of U.V rays reaching the surface (ozone levels high)

results in:
-melting of polar ice caps
-rising of sea levels
-loss of habitat for organisms such as polar bears

40

consequences of global warming

-melting of glaciers, ice caps and permafrost
-rising sea levels
-thermal expansion of water
-heat waves
-cold spells
-increased storm intensity
-shift in ocean currents
-growing seasons shift
-animals and humans may need to relocate
-mosquito-borne diseases
-economic consequences

41

effects of air pollution

-lowering the pH in surface waters
-decreases diversity of marine organisms
-mobilizes metals into surface water
-damages statues, monuments and buildings

42

ways to prevent air pollution

-removing sulfur dioxide from coal
-catalytic converters on cars
-scrubbers on smokestacks
-baghouse filters
-electrostatic precipitators

43

ozone depletion

decrease in the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere

44

ozone layer

layer of gaseous ozone in the stratosphere that protects life on earth by filtering out most harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun