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X-RAY POSITIONING

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Posteroanterior (PA) view

Most common chest x-ray, x-rays travel from a posteriorly places source to an anteriorly placed detector. Chest against the board.

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Anteroposterior (AP) view

X-rays travel from an anteriorly placed sours to a posteriorly placed detector. Back against the board.

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Lateral view

In a left lateral view, x-rays travel from a source located to the right of the patient t a detector placed to the left of the patient. Left side against the board.

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Oblique view

X-rays travel in a slanting direction at an angle from the perpendicular plane. Oblique views show regions or structures ordinary hitting and superimposed in route PA and AP views.

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Adduction

Movement toward the middle of the body

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Abduction

Movement away from the middle of the body

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Eversion

Turning outward

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Extension

Lengthening or straightening a flexed limb

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Flexion

Bending a part of the body

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Inversion

Turning inward

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Lateral decuubitus

Laying down on the side (with the x-ray beam horizontally positioned).

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Prone

Laying on the belly (face down)

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Recumbent

Laying down (may be prone or supine)

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Supine

Laying on the back (face up)

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Computed tomography (CT)

Diagnostic x-ray procedure whereby a cross-sectional images of a specific body segment was produced. Newer CT scans can create 3-D images as well.

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Contrast studies

Radiopaque materials (contrast media) are injected to obtain contrast with surrounding tissue when shown on the x-ray film.

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Gamma camera

Machine to detect gamma rays emitted from radiopharmaceuticals during standing for diagnostic purposes.

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Half-life

Time required for radioactive substance to lose half its radioactivity by disintegration.

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Interventional radiology

Therapeutic or diagnostic procedures performed by a radiologist. Examples are needle biopsy of the mass and drainage of an abscess, typically under the guidance of CT or fluoroscopy.

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In vitro

Process, test, or procedures performed, measured, or observed outside a living organism, often in a test tube.

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In vivo

Process, test, or procedure is performed, measured, or observed within a living organism.

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Ionization

Transformation of electrically neutral substances ino electrically charged particles. X-rays cause ionization of particles within tissues.

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Magnetic field and radio waves produced sagittal, coronal, and axial images of the body.

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Nuclear medicine

Medical specialty that uses radioactive substances in the diagnostics of disease

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Positron emission tomography (PET)

Positron-emitting radioactive substances given intravenously create a cross-sectional images of cellular metabolism based on local concentration of the radioactive substance. PET scans give information about metabolic activity.

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Radioimmunoassay

Test combines radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect minute quantities of substances and patient's blood.

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Radioisotope

Radioactive form of an element substance; radionuclide.

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Radiolabeled compound

Radiopharmaceutical; it was used in nuclear medicine studies.

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Radiology

Medical specialty concerned with the study of x-rays and their use in the diagnosis of disease. It includes other forms of energy, such as ultrasound in magnetic waves. Also called diagnostic radiology.

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Radiolucent

Permitting the passage of x-rays. Radiolucent structures appear black on x-ray images.

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Radionuclide

Radioactive form of an element that gives off energy in the form of radiation; radioisotope.

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Radiopaque

Obstructing the passage of x-rays. Radiopaque structures appear white on the x-ray images.

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Radiopharmaceutical

Radio active drug that is administrated safely for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes; a radiotracer. An example is technetium 99m, which combines with albumin (for lung perfusion) and DTPA (for renal imaging).

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Scan

Image of an area, organ or tissue of the body obtained from ultrasonography, radioactive tracers studies, compute tomography or magnetic resonance imaging.

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Scintigraphy

Diagnostic nuclear medicine test using radiopharmaceuticals and gamma cameras to create images.

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Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

Radioactive tracer is injected intravenously and computer reconstructs a 3-D image based on a composite of many views.

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Tagging

Radionuclides are used as tags, or labels, attached to chemicals and followed as they travel through the body.

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Ultrasonography (US, U/S)

Diagnostic technique that projects in retrieves high-frequency sound waves as they echo all parts of the body.

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Ultrasound transducer

Handheld device that sends and receives untrasound signals.

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Uptake

Rate of absorption of the radionuclide into an organ or tissue.

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Ventilation perfusion studies

Radiopharmaceutical is inhaled and injected intravenously followed by an imaging in passage through the respiratory tract.

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is/o

same

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pharmaceut/o

drug

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radi/o

x-rays

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son/o

sound

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therapeut/o

treatment

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vitr/o

glass

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viv/o

life

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echo-

a repeated sound

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ultra-

beyond

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-gram

record

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-graphy

process of recording

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-lucent

to shine

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-opaque

obscure