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Flashcards in Chapter 20 Deck (33):
1

Nationalism

patriotic feeling, principles, or efforts.

2

Rosorgimento

Italian unification, or the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.

3

Young Italy Movement

a political movement for Italian youth (under age 40) founded in 1831 by Giuseppe Mazzini. Its goal was to create a united Italian republic through promoting a general insurrection in the Italian reactionary states and in the lands occupied by the Austrian Empire.

4

Giuseppe Mazzini

an Italian politician, journalist and activist for the unification of Italy and spearheaded the Italian revolutionary movement. Wikipedia

5

Giuseppe Garibaldi

an Italian general, politician and nationalist who played a large role in the history of Italy.

6

Liberal

open to new behavior or opinions and willing to discard traditional values.

7

Unification

the process of being united or made into a whole.

8

Otto Von Bismarck

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890.

9

Kaiser

the German emperor, the emperor of Austria, or the head of the Holy Roman Empire.

10

The Vollverein

The Zollverein or German Customs Union was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories. Organized by the 1833 Zollverein treaties, the Zollverein formally came into existence on 1 January 1834.

11

The Junkers

were the members of the landed nobility in Prussia. They owned great estates that were maintained and worked by peasants with few rights.

12

Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

13

Realpolitik

a system of politics or principles based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations.

14

Czar Alexander

Alexander I reigned as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825. He was the son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Alexander was the first Russian King of Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland. He was sometimes called Alexander the Blessed.[2]

15

Emanicipation

the fact or process of being set free from legal, social, or political restrictions; liberation.

16

Serfs

an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.

17

Social Democratic Party

a social-democratic political party in Germany.

18

Autocrat

a ruler who has absolute power.

19

Pogroms

violent riot aimed at the massacre or persecution of an ethnic or religious group, particularly one aimed at Jews.

20

Nihilists

a person who believes that life is meaningless and rejects all religious and moral principles.

21

Duma

a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions.

22

Tanzimant Reforms

a series of edicts between 1839 and 1876 intended to preserve the weakening Ottoman Empire.

23

Dual Monoarchy

occurs when two separate kingdoms are ruled by the same monarch, follow the same foreign policy, exist in a customs union with each other and have a combined military but are otherwise self-governing.

24

Crimean War

a military conflict fought from October 1853 to March 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.

25

Treaty of San Stefano

a treaty between Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed at San Stefano, then a village west of Constantinople, on 3 March [O.S. 19 February] 1878 by Count Nicholas Pavlovich Ignatiev and Aleksandr Nelidov on behalf of the Russian Empire and Foreign Minister Safvet Pasha and Ambassador to Germany Sadoullah Bey on behalf of the Ottoman Empire.

26

Militarism

the belief or desire of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests.

27

Alliance System

a formal agreement or treaty between two or more nations to cooperate for specific purposes.

28

Triple Alliance

also known as the Triplice, was a secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed on 20 May 1882 and renewed periodically until World War I. Germany and Austria-Hungary had been closely allied since 1879.

29

Triple Entente

the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.

30

Kulturkampf

a German term referring to a set of policies enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Prime Minister of Prussia, Otto von Bismarck, in relation to secularity and the role of the Roman Catholic Church in the Kingdom of Prussia.

31

Reichstag

a historical edifice in Berlin, Germany, constructed to house the Imperial Diet, of the German Empire. It was opened in 1894 and housed the Diet until 1933, when it was severely damaged after it was set on fire.

32

Treaty of Prague

a peace treaty signed between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire at Prague on 23 August 1866, ending the Austro-Prussian War.

33

Francis Joseph I

Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, and many others from 2 December 1848 until his death on 21 November 1916. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was also President of the German Confederation.