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Flashcards in chapter 20 Deck (67):
1

The primary route for water loss from the body is the ________ system.
A) respiratory
B) integumentary
C) urinary
D) digestive
E) cardiovascular

C) urinary

2

The primary route for ion loss from the body is the ________ system.
A) urinary
B) respiratory
C) digestive
D) cardiovascular
E) integumentary

A) urinary

3

Cell volume (and therefore cell function) in most cells is dependent upon careful regulation of
A) resting membrane potential.
B) volume of extracellular fluid.
C) blood pressure.
D) osmolarity of extracellular fluid.
E) permeability of cell membranes.

D) osmolarity of extracellular fluid.

4

The two organ systems that work together to regulate most aspects of the body's water balance are
A) urinary and respiratory.
B) urinary and cardiovascular.
C) digestive and respiratory.
D) digestive and cardiovascular.
E) cardiovascular and respiratory.

B) urinary and cardiovascular.

5

Kidneys respond relatively ________ to changes in blood volume.
A) slowly
B) quickly

A) slowly

6

Shrinkage of hepatocytes in the liver causes them to cause which of the following?
A) protein synthesis only
B) glycogen production only
C) glycogen breakdown only
D) both glycogen production and protein synthesis
E) both glycogen breakdown and protein breakdown

E) both glycogen breakdown and protein breakdown

7

Most body water is located in
A) lumens of organs open to the outside.
B) cells.
C) plasma.
D) interstitial fluid.

B) cells.

8

Kidneys regulate
A) water gain only.
B) water loss only.
C) both water loss and gain.

B) water loss only.

9

When a body is dehydrated, water in the urinary bladder
A) can be returned to the circulation directly.
B) will still be expelled from the body in the urine.
C) can be returned to the circulation after moving back into the kidneys.

B) will still be expelled from the body in the urine.

10

Water reabsorption by the kidneys is a result of
A) both passive and active transport processes.
B) osmosis.
C) exchange with ions.
D) cotransport with ions.

B) osmosis.

11

The hormone that directly controls water reabsorption by the kidneys is
A) epinephrine.
B) vasopressin.
C) ANP.
D) aldosterone.
E) angiotensin.

B) vasopressin.

12

The hormone that regulates water reabsorption by the kidneys
A) only increases water permeability in certain portions of the kidney tubules.
B) decreases water permeability throughout the kidney tubules.
C) increases water permeability throughout the kidney tubules.
D) only decreases water permeability in certain portions of the kidney tubules

A) only increases water permeability in certain portions of the kidney tubules.

13

Why do patients taking loop diuretics need to take supplemental potassium?
A) They inhibit the reabsorption of potassium as well as sodium in the loop of Henle.
B) They cause active reabsorption of potassium in the distal convoluted tubule.
C) They inhibit intestinal absorption of potassium.
D) They cause active secretion of potassium in the loop of Henle.

A) They inhibit the reabsorption of potassium as well as sodium in the loop of Henle.

14

The primary osmoreceptors are located in the
A) medulla.
B) stomach.
C) hypothalamus.
D) pons.
E) kidney.

C) hypothalamus.

15

Osmoreceptors depolarize after they ________ in response to ________ plasma osmolarity.
A) shrink, decreased
B) swell, increased
C) swell, decreased
D) shrink, increased

D) shrink, increased

16

The hormone vasopressin
A) stimulates the kidneys to conserve water.
B) is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in response to changes in blood osmolarity.
C) stimulates the kidneys to retain sodium ions.
D) stimulates the kidneys to produce a large volume of urine.
E) All of the answers are correct.

A) stimulates the kidneys to conserve water.

17

When venous return is increased, stretch receptors in the atria of the heart are activated. This
results in
A) secretion of vasopressin.
B) increased thirst.
C) inhibition of vasopressin secretion.
D) decreased urine production.
E) increased glomerular filtration.

C) inhibition of vasopressin secretion.

18

When baroreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies register increased blood pressure, this results
in
A) increased thirst.
B) decreased urine production.
C) secretion of vasopressin.
D) increased glomerular filtration.
E) inhibition of vasopressin secretion.

E) inhibition of vasopressin secretion.

19

Why is sodium actively reabsorbed in the nephron?
A) to increase passive reabsorption of water
B) to decrease blood pressure
C) to decrease osmolarity inside the nephron
D) to make urine less concentrated

A) to increase passive reabsorption of water

20

Granular cells secrete
A) renin.
B) aldosterone.
C) angiotensinogen.
D) angiotensin I.
E) angiotensin converting enzyme.

A) renin.

21

ACE converts
A) angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
B) renin to aldosterone.
C) renin to angiotensinogen.
D) angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
E) angiotensin II to aldosterone.

A) angiotensin I to angiotensin II.

22

Stimuli for the activation of the RAS pathway include
A) low blood pressure in arterioles in the nephron only.
B) high blood pressure in the renal artery only.
C) a decrease in fluid flow through the distal tubule only.
D) low blood pressure in arterioles in the nephron and a decrease in fluid flow through the distal
tubule.
E) low blood pressure in arterioles in the nephron, a decrease in fluid flow through the distal
tubule, and high blood pressure in the renal artery.

D) low blood pressure in arterioles in the nephron and a decrease in fluid flow through the distal
tubule.

23

Angiotensin II stimulates
A) thirst only.
B) synthesis and release of aldosterone.
C) vasoconstriction only.
D) thirst and vasoconstriction.
E) thirst, vasoconstriction, and synthesis and release of aldosterone.

E) thirst, vasoconstriction, and synthesis and release of aldosterone.

24

Which of the following is NOT true about angiotensin II?
A) stimulates thirst
B) increases cardiac output
C) activates parasympathetic output
D) elevates blood pressure
E) is a potent vasoconstrictor

C) activates parasympathetic output

25

Drugs that treat hypertension by preventing Angiotensin I from becoming Angiotensin II are called
A) calcium channel blockers.
B) diuretics.
C) beta blockers.
D) ACE inhibitors.

D) ACE inhibitors.

26

Aldosterone
A) is secreted in response to elevated levels of sodium in the blood.
B) promotes sodium retention in the kidneys.
C) increases the concentration of sodium in urine.
D) helps decrease blood volume.
E) functions in pH regulation.

B) promotes sodium retention in the kidneys.

27

Atrial natriuretic peptide
A) inhibits release of renin.
B) stimulates release of renin.
C) increases GFR.
D) increases GFR and inhibits release of renin.
E) increases GFR and stimulates release of renin.

D) increases GFR and inhibits release of renin.

28

An increase in plasma potassium levels is properly called
A) hyperpotasseplasmia.
B) hyperkalemia.
C) hypercalcemia.
D) hyperpotassemia.
E) hypernatremia.

B) hyperkalemia.

29

Excess potassium ions are eliminated from the body by the
A) sweat glands.
B) digestive system.
C) spleen.
D) kidneys.
E) liver.

D) kidneys.

30

Thirst is
A) triggered by decreased osmolarity.
B) relieved only when plasma osmolarity is increased.
C) controlled by centers in the hypothalamus.
D) controlled by centers in the hypothalamus and triggered by increased osmolarity.
E) controlled by centers in the hypothalamus, triggered by increased osmolarity, and relieved
only when plasma osmolarity is decreased.

D) controlled by centers in the hypothalamus and triggered by increased osmolarity.

31

A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion concentration of the blood is
A) aldosterone.
B) thymosin.
C) cortisol.
D) somatotropin.
E) parathormone.

A) aldosterone.

32

Which of the following concerning the hormone atrial natriuretic peptide is FALSE?
A) increases aldosterone secretion
B) promotes sodium loss at the kidneys
C) reduces blood pressure
D) suppresses vasopressin secretion
E) produced by cells in the heart

A) increases aldosterone secretion

33

The enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of
A) atrial natriuretic peptide.
B) angiotensin I.
C) adrenaline.
D) cortisol.
E) erythropoietin.

B) angiotensin I.

34

Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by enzymes primarily located in the
A) lungs.
B) liver.
C) kidneys.
D) heart.
E) blood vessels.

E) blood vessels.

35

The osmolarity in the deepest part of the loop of Henle is ________ mOsM.
A) 100
B) 300
C) 900
D) 1200
E) None of these answers are correct.

D) 1200

36

Decreased ECF volume causes
A) sympathetic output from the cardiovascular control center to increase and arteriolar
vasodilation.
B) sympathetic output from the cardiovascular control center to increase.
C) parasympathetic output from the cardiovascular control center to increase.
D) the force of ventricular contraction to decrease.
E) arteriolar vasodilation.

B) sympathetic output from the cardiovascular control center to increase.

37

Symptoms of low plasma pH may include
A) CNS depression only.
B) numbness, tingling, or muscle twitches only.
C) confusion and disorientation only.
D) CNS depression and confusion and disorientation.
E) CNS depression; confusion and disorientation; and numbness, tingling, or muscle twitches.

D) CNS depression and confusion and disorientation.

38

The most important factor affecting the pH of plasma is the concentration of
A) ketone bodies.
B) carbon dioxide.
C) organic acids.
D) lactic acid.
E) hydrochloric acid.

B) carbon dioxide.

39

The primary role of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to
A) buffer carbonic acid formed by carbon dioxide.
B) prevent pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids.
C) buffer the urine.
D) buffer stomach acid.
E) increase the amount of carbonic acid during ventilation

B) prevent pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids.

40

Which of the following is most likely to be observed in a patient with compensated respiratory
alkalosis?
A) respiratory rate increases
B) body retains less carbon dioxide
C) tidal volume increases
D) kidneys conserve bicarbonate
E) kidneys secrete fewer hydrogen ions

E) kidneys secrete fewer hydrogen ions

41

Prolonged vomiting of the stomach's contents can result in
A) respiratory acidosis.
B) respiratory alkalosis.
C) metabolic acidosis.
D) metabolic alkalosis.
E) None of the answers are correct.

D) metabolic alkalosis.

42

A person who suffers from emphysema will exhibit signs of
A) respiratory acidosis.
B) respiratory alkalosis.
C) metabolic acidosis.
D) metabolic alkalosis.
E) None of the answers are correct.

A) respiratory acidosis.

43

A person who suffers from hyperventilation will exhibit signs of
A) respiratory acidosis.
B) respiratory alkalosis.
C) metabolic acidosis.
D) metabolic alkalosis.
E) None of the answers are correct.

B) respiratory alkalosis.

44

If sodium increases in the ECF, water will move from
A) the ECF to cells, and cells will shrink.
B) the ECF to cells, and cells will swell. l
C) cells to the ECF, and cells will shrink.
D) cells to the ECF, and cells will swell.

C) cells to the ECF, and cells will shrink.

45

A buffer
A) binds or releases bicarbonate ions.
B) moderates changes in pH.
C) always increases pH.
D) always decreases pH.

B) moderates changes in pH.

46

The normal pH range for most body fluids is ________.
A) 7 to 8
B) 7.5 to 8
C) 7.38 to 7.42
D) 7.25 to 7.75

C) 7.38 to 7.42

47

When the pH rises above 7.42, a state of ________ exists.
A) equilibrium
B) acidosis
C) alkalosis
D) homeostasis

C) alkalosis

48

Abnormal fat and amino acid metabolism may lead to the condition called
A) ketoacidosis.
B) metabolic alkalosis.
C) lactic acidosis.
D) respiratory acidosis.

A) ketoacidosis.

49

The enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of H2O and CO2 to H2CO3 is called
A) bicarbonate ion.
B) renin.
C) carbonic acid.
D) carbonic anhydrase.

D) carbonic anhydrase.

50

Normal removal of excess water in urine is known as
A) diuretics.
B) diuresis.
C) osmotic diuresis.
D) filtration.

B) diuresis.

51

________ interstitial osmolarity allows urine to be concentrated.
A) High cortex
B) Low medullary
C) High medullary
D) Low cortex

C) High medullary

52

AQP2 water pores are added to the cell membrane by ________ and withdrawn by ________ in a
process known as ________.
A) exocytosis, endocytosis, membrane recycling
B) membrane recycling, endocytosis, exocytosis
C) endocytosis, exocytosis, membrane recycling
D) membrane recycling, exocytosis, endocytosis

A) exocytosis, endocytosis, membrane recycling

53

The anatomical arrangement of the kidney that allows transfer of solutes from one blood vessel to
another is called the
A) countercurrent heat exchanger.
B) countercurrent exchange system.
C) capillaries.
D) portal system.

B) countercurrent exchange system.

54

Paracrine feedback from the ________ in the distal tubule to the granular cells stimulates release of
________.
A) liver, angiotensinogen
B) sympathetic neurons, epinephrine
C) granular cells, renin
D) macula densa, renin

D) macula densa, renin

55

The ________ cells of the distal nephron are interspersed among the principal cells and contribute
to acid-base regulation.
A) intercalated
B) endothelial
C) granular
D) endocrine

A) intercalated

56

A rise in angiotensin II levels would result in increased
A) blood volume.
B) water retention.
C) blood pressure.
D) retention of sodium ions at the kidney.
E) All of these effects.

E) All of these effects.

57

The RAS pathway begins with secretion of
A) angiotensinogen.
B) aldosterone.
C) vasopressin.
D) angiotensin converting enzyme.
E) renin.

E) renin.

58

Renal tubule cells in the kidney medulla are constantly exposed to high extracellular osmolarity.
How do they maintain normal cell volume?
A) They maintain a water-impermeable membrane.
B) They synthesize organic solutes as needed to match the osmolarity.
C) They add or remove aquaporins as needed.
D) They synthesize water molecules through increased metabolism to offset volume loss.

B) They synthesize organic solutes as needed to match the osmolarity.

59

When the pH of body fluids begins to fall, proteins will
A) become more active.
B) fold into tertiary structures.
C) lose three-dimensional structure.
D) not be affected.

C) lose three-dimensional structure.

60

When the pH of the extracellular fluid declines, the kidneys
A) reabsorb more potassium ions.
B) reabsorb less water.
C) reabsorb more hydrogen ions.
D) excrete more bicarbonate ions.
E) excrete more sodium ions.

A) reabsorb more potassium ions.

61

Two hours before major surgery is to begin, the patient experiences "jitters," an elevated heart rate
and blood pressure. These symptoms are the result of
A) decreased activity of sympathetic centers in the hypothalamus.
B) sympathetic activation.
C) increased parasympathetic activity.
D) decreased levels of epinephrine in the blood.
E) All of these mechanisms.

B) sympathetic activation.

62

An explorer has been lost in the desert for two days with very little water. As a result, you would
expect to observe
A) increased blood volume.
B) normal urine production.
C) elevated vasopressin levels.
D) cells enlarged with fluid.
E) decreased blood osmolarity.

C) elevated vasopressin levels.

63

Which effect would a decrease in pH have on the amount of potassium ion in the urine?
A) no effect
B) increase
C) decrease

C) decrease

64

In response to a rapid increase of organic acid in the body, you would expect to observe
A) decreased blood pressure.
B) decreased heart rate.
C) increased alveolar ventilation.
D) increased blood pH.

C) increased alveolar ventilation.

65

Dehydration may cause some ions to become concentrated. If a person was suffering from severe
hyperkalemia, you would expect
A) abnormal cardiac rhythms.
B) the potassium ion concentration of the interstitial fluid to be less than normal.
C) muscle weakness and increased strength of twitch contractions.
D) the membrane potential of nerves and muscles to be more negative.
E) All of the answers are correct.

A) abnormal cardiac rhythms.

66

Which of the following leads to the lowest water loss during a day?
A) feces
B) lungs
C) skin
D) kidneys
E) metabolism

A) feces

67

The most potent stimulus for vasopressin release is
A) blood pressure.
B) blood volume.
C) plasma osmolarity.
D) low potassium.

C) plasma osmolarity.