Chapter 20 & 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20 & 21 Deck (149)
1

Helicobacter pylori is also known as ______.

gastric ulcers

2

Helicobacter pylori is a _____.

bacteria

3

Helicobacter pylori aka gastric ulcers thrive in the ____ environment of the stomach.

acidic, low pH

4

The majority of gastric ulcers are caused by ______.

H. pylori

5

Long term infection with H. pylori is associated with formation of ________.

gastric (stomach) cancer

6

H. pylori infection is present in about ____ the people in the world.

half

7

The presence of H. pylori in most people is _____.

asymptomatic

8

H. pylori produces ____.

urease

9

Urea byproducts include ammonia and _____.

carbon dioxide

10

A ____ can be used to test for the byproducts (ammonia and CO2) as indicators of infection.

breath test

11

_____ tests can check for antibodies to H. pylori.

blood tests

12

S. enteritidis and S. typhi are types of ______.

salmonella infections

13

S. enteritidis causes ______.

salmonellosis

14

______ causes typhoid fever.

S. typhi

15

Salmonella enteritidis can be found in the intestinal tracts of infected ______ and _____, as well as on their skin and in their secretions.

domestic animals (chickens) and wild animals

16

Salmonella enteritidis is transmitted through _______ and contaminated surfaces.

contaminated foods

17

Salmonella enteritidis aka _______ last 4-7 days.

gastroenteritis

18

Most people recover without antibiotic treatment, but some need dehydration treatment to recover from ________.

Salmonella enteritidis aka gastroenteritis

19

_______ (from the initial salmonella enteritidis infection ) is a risk for very young/old as well as immunocompromised individuals.

Septicemia

20

Rare cases of _____ can result in serious illness/death.

Salmonella enteritidis aka gastroenteritis

21

Salmonella typhi causes ______ aka _______.

typhoid aka enteric fever

22

Salmonella typhi aka typhoid aka enteric fever results in _____ cases in the US each year (most from traveling)

400

23

Worldwide, typhoid affects _____ people annually.

21 million

24

Salmonella typhi inhabits the small intestines, liver, spleen, and _____ of infected humans.

blood

25

Salmonella typhi aka typhoid aka enteric fever is spread via ______ route.

fecal oral

26

Symptoms of _____ include rash (some), fever, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, enlargement of the spleen possible development of meningitis.

Salmonella typhi

27

Salmonella typhi can lead to the possible development of _____.

meningitis

28

____% of individuals with Salmonella typhi become chronic carriers in bloodstream and intestines

2-5%

29

The most common source of infection of Salmonealla typhi is ______ tainted by urine and feces of infected individuals.

drinking water

30

Untreated typhoid fever has a ____% mortality rate.

12-13%

31

Less than ____% of typhoid fever patients are treated with antibiotics.

1

32

_______ is more common in the U.S. than typhoid fever.

Salmonellosis

33

There are vaccinations available for travelers to endemic regions for _____.

typhoid fever

34

A 1985 epidemic of ______ occurred due to contaminated milk which infected 14,000 people in the midwest.

salmonella

35

Shigella and shigellosis is also kanown as _____.

dystentery

36

Shigella and shigellosis aka dysentery is ________ which leads to malnutrition.

severe colitis

37

Shigella and shigellosis aka dystentery result from ______ organisms.

consuming

38

Consumed organisms that cause shigella and shigellosis attach to and penetrate the epithelial cells of the ______.

intestinal mucosa

39

_______ results in degradation of the epithelium and inflammatory colitis

Shigella and Shigellosis aka dysentery

40

A small % of ______ can lead to CNS problems and reactive arthritis (Reiter's syndrome)

shigella and shigellosis aka dysentery

41

Dysentery is trasmitted through contaminated ______, food and water.

fecal-oral

42

Cases of _____ result in approx. 10% of all food-borne illnesses

shigella and shigellosis aka dysentery

43

S. boydii, S. dysenteriae, S. sonnei, and S. flexneri cause _____.

shigella

44

Shigella is a _____ disease.

toxin mediated

45

Shigella endotoxin causes ____.

fever

46

_____ causes inflammation, bledding/ulceration and can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome and renal failure.

Shiga toxin (exotoxin)

47

Shigella's ______ damages the mucosa causing diarrhea.

enterotoxin

48

The two Shigella exotoxins are _____ and _____.

Shiga toxin and enterotoxin

49

_____ is the most virulent strain of E. coli.

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)

50

The symptoms of Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) range from mild to ______.

bloody diarrhea

51

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) contains _____.

shiga toxin

52

___% of patients develop hemolytic uremic syndrome wtih Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7

10%

53

_____ E. coli can cause neurological symptoms such as blindness, seizure, and stroke.

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157:H7

54

Enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC) is transmitted through ____ of contaminated food/water, fecal oral spread.

ingestion

55

E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC) only needs ___ to cause disease. Other pathogenic E. coli needs 100s of 1000s of organisms to cause disease.

10

56

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) is ____ in travelers to underdeveloped countries or regions of poor sanitation.

diarrhea

57

_______ is voluminous watery diarrhea.

enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)

58

Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) are mediated by two potent ______ (ST and LT)

exotoxins

59

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is ____, watery diarrhea.

profuse

60

________, childhood diarrhea, can be fatal in developing countries.

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)

61

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is usually not fatal in _____.

developed countries

62

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) is a ____ invasion of host cells that causes cell damage , but no toxin production.

bacterial

63

_______ is the most common bacterial cause of diarrhea in the US

Campylobacter jejuni

64

Symptoms of _____ include frequent watery stools, vomiting and severe abdominal pain

Campylobacter jejuni

65

_______ symptoms may subside then recur over a period of weeks

Campylobacter jejuni

66

Campylobacter jejuni is _____ fora in the US.

not human

67

Campylobacter jejuni is found in cattle, chickens, birds, and even _____.

flies

68

Campylobacter jejuni can sometimes be found in _____ water sources (streams and ponds).

non-chlorinated

69

Most Campylobacter infections are ____, a small % can have autoimmune complications.

GI

70

_____ can lead to Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS).

Campylobacter

71

After Guilain Barre sydrome infection an _______ reaction occurs.

autoimmune

72

_____ is a common cause but not the only one of Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS)

C. jejuni

73

_____ can be fatal from respiratory paralysis.

Guillain Barre syndrome

74

Guillain Barre syndrome is associated with ____.

campylobacter

75

_______ results in ascending paralysis, starts and feet and hands, working its way to the trunk.

Guillain Barre syndrome

76

Guillain Barre syndrome takes _____ to recover, but many will recover completely.

takes months to years

77

Clostridium difficile is naturally in the gut of _____% of the adult population.

2-5%

78

_____ is a major cause of diarrhea in hospitals.

Clostridium difficile

79

Clostridium difficile is spread via ______ route.

fecal oral

80

______ forms heat-resistant endospores.

Clostridium difficile

81

Clostridium difficile is not killed by hand sanitizers or _____.

routine cleaning

82

C. difficile produces several ______ that cause necrosis in the wall of the intestine.

enterotoxins

83

______ often infects large intestine when antibiotics have disrupted the normal flora.

C. difficile

84

______ causes pseudomembranous colitis.

C. difficile

85

Foule-smelling diarrhea, fever and abdominal pain are signs of ______.

C. difficile

86

Life threatening complications with C. difficile can develop such as _______ (enlarges colon, can lead to shock).

toxic megacolon

87

The main reservoirs are _____ and water sources for virbrio cholera

people

88

Vibrio cholera is spread with ____ route, drinking water.

fecal-oral

89

_____ affects the small intestine by secreting cholera toxin.

vibrio cholera

90

Cholera toxin causes secretion of _____ into lumen.

water/electrolytes

91

_______ results in watery diarrhea, "rice-water stools."

Vibrio cholera

92

With Vibrio cholera a person can lose up to ____ of fluid an hour (24 in a day) in severe cases.

one liter

93

Cholera ____ with hole and bucket catches the fluids lost.

beds

94

Severe ______ as a result of vibrio cholera can be fatal in 2-3 days without rehydration and _______.

dehydration
electrolyte therapy

95

Cystitis, urethritis, and ________ are all infectious UTIs.

pyelonephritis

96

______ is reduced urine flow or accidental introduction.

cystitis

97

The most common cause of cystitis is _____.

E. coli

98

_____ is an inflammation of the urethra, type of UTI.

Urethritis

99

Urethritis is caused by _____.

many possible organsisms

100

____ an an infection of the kidneys.

Pyelonephritis

101

Pyelonephritis is caused by ______ and E. coli can also cause.

proteus species

102

_____ is the overgrowth of organisms usually present in the vagina.

bacterial vaginosis (BV)

103

_____ numbers go down and other possible species overgrow with bacterial vaginosis

lactobacilli

104

______ is a common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age.

bacterial vaginosis (BV)

105

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) can be a STD, but can also be in ______ people.

non sexually active

106

Gardnerella vaginalis is the common cause of ______.

bacterial vaginosis

107

Bacterial vaginosis can be present in ______ women.

healthy

108

Symptoms of ______ include vaginal discharge with distinctive odor, itching.

bacterial vaginosis (BV)

109

Bacterial vaginosis is treated with antibiotics in ______ women and their partners, but is normally self resolving.

pregnant

110

Trichomonas vaginalis is _____ transmitted

sexually

111

____% of people infected with Trichomonas vaginalis have no symptoms.

70%

112

Symptoms of _____ range from mild irritation to severe inflammation.

Trichomonas vaginalis

113

______ can cause low birth weight and preterm delivery.

Trichomonas vaginalis

114

_____ is a flagellated protozoan (no cysts form)

Trichomonas vaginalis

115

Treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis is with ______.

anti-protozoals

116

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is also known as ______.

gonococcus

117

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is gram ______.

negative

118

Neisserie gonorrhoeae arrangement is ______.

diplococci

119

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a ______ transmitted disease.

sexually

120

_______ grows in the uterus and fallopian tubes in women; in the urethra in women and men.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

121

________ can grow n the mouth, throat, eyes, and anus too.

Neisseria gonorrhoaea

122

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is treated with antibiotics, but ______ strains are increasing.

drug resistant

123

Female symptoms of _______ include painful urination, mucoid discharge, but usually no symptoms.

gonorrhea

124

_____ can be passed to infants during child birth causing eye infections

gonorrhea

125

_____ are given to babies after birth as a preventative measure against gonorrhea.

medicated eye drops

126

Gonorrhea can lead to _________ which is scaring/damage to the fallopian tubes = infertility.

pelvic inflammatory disease

127

Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram _____.

negative

128

Chlamydia trachomatis is an ______ parasite.

obligate intracellular

129

______ is the most frequently reported bacterial STD in the U.S.

Chlamydia trachomatis

130

_______ infects the cervix/penis, rectum and urethra.

Chlamydia trachomatis

131

Babies born to mothers with _______ can develop eye infections and pneumonia.

Chlamydia trachomatis

132

Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis is ______ to both partners.

antibiotics

133

Many cases of _____ are asymptomatic, but still cause damage.

Chlamydia

134

______ is the leading cause of blindness worldwide.

Chlamydia

135

Trachoma = ______.

blindness

136

Symptoms include inflammation, that mimics gonorrhea. If untreated infections may lead to the epididymis with _____.

Chlamydia

137

Cervicitis, may lead to PID and infertility are symptoms of ______.

Chlamydia

138

The lifecycle of Chlamydia begins with forming _____ which are infectious particles. EBs released from t rupturing host cell. These are _______ infectious particles. EB responsible for person to person spread. Found in _____ = sexual transmission. Within hours of cell infection, the EB transforms into a ________ in the host cell. Within 24 hours, host cells burst & EBs are released to infect adjacent cells or another person (through secretions).

elementary bodies (EBs)
non-replicating
secretions
reticulate body (RB)

139

Haemophilus ducreyi is a bacteria that causes the STD _____.

Chancroid

140

Haemophilus ducreyi develops soft _____, which are painful in men, but often unnoticed in women.

chancres

141

_____ is common in African, Asian, and Latin American countries and rarely seen in the US.

Haemophilus ducreyi

142

Group B Stretptococcus is gram ______ cocci bacteria.

positive

143

_____ is normally found in the vagina and or rectum of about 10-40% of all healthy, adult women.

Group B streptococcus

144

Group B Streptococcus is not normally a problem in ______.

healthy adults

145

People with long term illness and diabetes may have a problem with _____.

Group B streptococcus

146

Group B strep affects _____ in every 2,000 babies in U.S.

1

147

Not every baby who is born to a mother who has GBS will ______.

become ill

148

Group B strep infects babies during _____.

passage through the birth canal

149

Group B strep causing _____ in newborns can lead to death or long term illness (pneumonia, meningitis, hearing loss), breathing problems, lethargy, and _____.

septicemia
poor feeding