Chapter 20 Endocrine Glands Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20 Endocrine Glands Deck (66):
1

The uptake of hormones occurs where?

Capillaries

2

__secretion is localized dispersal of hormones in interstitial fluid or through lops of blood vessels. Usually the target cells are a short distance away

Paracrine Secretion

3

__secretion is signaling molecules remains on the secreting cells surface or adjacent extracellular matric and affects target cells when the cells make contact

Juxtacrine Secretion

4

___secretion occurs when cells produce molecules that act on themselves or cells of the same type

Autocrine Secretion

5

___lies below the brain in a small cavity on the sphenoid bone, sella turcica

Pituitary Gland

6

___is formed in the embryo partly from the developing brain and partly from the developing oral cavity

Pituitary Gland

7

Describe embryonic development of Pituitary Gland

Neural Component- neurohypophyseal bud growing from the floor of future diencephalon as an infundibulum
Oral Component- arises as an outpocketing of ECTODERM from roof of primitve mouth forming hypophyseal (Ratke) pouch

8

Why does the pituitary have two glands?

Because of its origin from the brain and the mouth

Adenohypophysis- derived from oral ECTODERM,has three parts (pars distalis) or anterior lobe, pars

9

___is the portion of the pituitary gland that is derived from the brain

Neurohypophysis

10

ADH is produced in the _____nuclei

Supraoptic nuclei

11

Oxytocin is produced in tthe ____nuclei

Paraveentricular nuclei

12

the _____arteries supplies the median eminence and the infundibullar stalk

Superior Hypophyseal arteries

13

The __ arteries provide blood for the neurohypophysis

Inferior Hypophyseal arteries

14

The ____ are a group of fenestrated capillaries that make up the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system

Primary Plexus

15

The __ carries neuropeptides from median eminence to the adenohypophysis

Hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system

16

The three parts of the adenohypophysis anterior pituitary are derived embryonically from___

hypophyseal pouch

17

The ___accounts for 75% of the adenohypophysis

Pars Distalis

18

What two cell types are in the Pars Distalis?

Chromophobes and Chromophils

19

__are secretory cells in which hormone is stored in cytoplasmic granules in the pars distalis

Chromophils

20

Acidophils secrete either ___or____ and are called somatotrophs

growth hormone (somatotropin) or prolactin

21

What two cell types are considered acidophils in the pars distalis

Somatotrophs - secrete growth hormone
Lactotrophs - secrete prolactin

22

What are the three cell types that are considered basophilic cells

Corticotrophs- ACTH
Gonadotrophs- secrete FSH and LH
Thyrotrophs -TSH

23

Most of the cellls of the pars tuberalis are__

gonadotrophs - secreting FSH and LH

24

the colloid filled cysts of the pars intermedia is derived from __

the lumen of the embryonic hypophyseal pouch

25

The neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) consists of the ___ and the ___

pars nervosa and the infundibular stalk

26

____are highly branched glial cells and are the most abundant cell type in the posterior pituitary gland

Pituicytes

27

ADH and Oxytocin accumular in axonal dilations called ___ in the posterior pituitary

Herring Bodies

28

Upon release, ADH and Oxytocin get uptaken by fenestrated capillaries in the __

pars nervosa

29

____increases the permeability of the renal collecting ducts to water so more water is absorbed from the filtrate

ADH

30

The adrenal____arises from the mesoderm

cortex

31

The adrenal___arises from the neural crest

Medulla

32

From top to bottom what is the order of zones for the adrenal cortex?

Capsule
Zona Glomerulosa
Zona Fasciculata
Zona Reticularis
Adrenal Medulla

33

The hromones produced in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex are___ principal product is __

Mineralcorticoids; aldosterone

34

The middle zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex secretes____ especially____

Glucocorticoids; cortisol

35

The innermost zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex secrets ___including ___

weak androgens; DHEA dehydroepiandrosterone

36

THe medullary parenchymal cells known as ____ arise from neural crest cells

chromaffin cells

37

Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla contain many electron-dense granules for the storage and secretion of ____

catecholamines, either epinephrine or norepinephrine

38

The conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine occurs only in ___cells of the adrenal medulla

Chromaffin cells

39

The ___of the pancreas are compact spherical or ovoid masses of endocrine cells embedded within the acinar exocrine tissue of the pancreas

Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans

40

The embryonic origin of pancreatic islet cells is the same as the pancreatic acinar tissue _____

epithelial outgrowth from endoderm of the developing gut

41

The enterochromaffin cells in both the islets and small ducts of the pancreas are similar those of the digestive tract, collectively these cells as well as those in the respiratory mucosa make up the __

diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNES)

42

Cells of the DNES staining with silver nitrate care sometiems called

Argentaffin cells

43

Cells of the DNES stained by solutions of chromium salts are called

Enterochromaffin Cells

44

The thryoid gland originates embryonically from the ____

foregut endoderm near the base of the the developing tongue

45

What three hormones are secreted by the thyroid gland?

Thyroxine, triiodothyronine and Calcitonin

46

The parenchyma of the thyroid is composed of millions of rounded epithelial___

thyroid follicles

47

The central lumen of thyroid follicles of the thyroid gland are filled with gelatinous acidophilic __

colloid

48

The ___gland is the only endocrine gland where a large quantity of secretory product is stored OUTSIDE the cells

Thyroid

49

The ___cells secrete Thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine

Thyrocytes or Follicular cells

50

The __cells of the thyroid gland secrete calcitonin

Parafollicular cells

51

Embryonically, parafollicular cells are derived from___

neural crest

52

The major regulator of the anatomical and functional state of thyroid follicles is ___

TSH (thyrotropin)

53

The parathyroid gland is usually embedded in the __ capsule

thyroid glands capsule

54

The parathyroid gland is embryonically derived from ___

embryonic pharyngeal pouch

55

The superior parathyroid glands are embryonically derived from__and the inferior parathyroid gland are derived from__

Superior parathyroid gland derived from FOURTH pouch
Inferior parathyroid derived from the THIRD pouch

56

Endocrine cells of the parathyroid are called____

principal (chief) cells

57

The parathyroid hormone (PTH) has three targets __,___, and____

Osteoblasts respond by producing osteoclast stimulating factor to resorption of calcified bone matric and release of CA
-distal convoluted tubule stimulates Ca reabsorption
-indirectly stimulates absorption in small intestine by stimulating vitamin D activation

58

___ are much larger than the common prinicpal cells of the parathyroid gland and found commonly in old people as secretory cells are replaced with adipocytes

Oxyphils

59

Oxyphils stain___ and principal cells stain__

pink, purple

60

The __gland regulates the daily rhythms of body activities

Pineal Gland

61

The embryonic origin of the pineal gland is that it___

develops from neuroectoderm in the posterior wall of the third ventricle and remains attacehd to the brain by a short talk

62

Prominent and abundant secretory cells of the pineal gland____ produce melatonin

Pinealocytes

63

Melatonin is release from pinealocytes when___

it is dark and inhibited during daylight

64

Characteristic feature of the pineal gland is the presence of various sized concentrations of calcium and magnesium salts call___ or brain sand

Corpora Arenacea

65

Pituitary gland is a ventral outgrowth of the second part of the brain called the __

diencephalon

66

The ___wraps around the infundibulum of the anterior pituitary gland

Pars Tuberalis