Chapter 20: Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 20: Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Deck (78):
1

chol/e

Gall, bile

2

cinemat/o

Motion

3

ech/o

Echo

4

encephal/o

Brain

5

ion/o or iont/o

Ion

6

myel/o

Spinal cord

7

phot/o

Light

8

pyel/o

Renal pelvis

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sail/o

Salivary

10

son/o

Sound

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Radiology

The scientific discipline of medical imaging using radionuclides, ionizing radiation, nuclear magnetic resonance, and ultrasound.

12

X-Ray

Electromagnetic wave of high energy produced by the collision of a beam of electrons with a target in a vacuum tube (x-Ray tube)

13

Radiologist

Physician who specializes in radiology

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Characteristics of x-rays

1)invisible form of radiant energy, with short wavelengths 2)ionization: process of creation of ions 3)cause fluorescence of certain substances that allows the physician to visualize internal structures 4)allow x-Ray beams to be directed at specific sites to produce a film 5)are able to penetrate substances of different densities 6) destroy body cells

15

Radiolucent

Pertaining to the property of permitting the passage of radiant energy

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Radiopaque

Pertaining to the property of obstructing the passage of radiant energy

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Danger of prolonged exposure to x-Ray

Can cause damage to the gonads (testes and ovaries) and depress the hematopoietic system (blood forming system-bone marrow), which can cause leukopenia and leukemia
Secondary radiation: x-rays scatter when they strike radiopaque objects. There is a device called a grid between the x-Ray machine and the patient to absorb the scatter before it reaches the patient

18

Safety precautions

Film badge, lead barrier, lead lined room, protective clothing, gonad shield

19

Positions used in Radiography

Anteroposterior (AP), Posteroanterior Position (PA), Lateral Position (lat.), Supine (on back), Prone (face down), Oblique Position: the body is placed at an angle

20

Diagnostic imaging

Use of x-rays, ultrasounds, radiopharmaceiticals, radiopaque media, and computers to provide the radiologist images of internal body organs and processes.

21

Computed tomography (CT)

Sometimes referred to as CAT scan (computerized axial tomography)

22

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Is used to view organs, bones, and other internal body structures. The images body part is exposed to radio waves while in a magnetic field.

23

Bore

Horizontal tube running through the magnet from front to back

24

Ultrasound

Literally means beyond sound, beyond the range of human hearing. It's energy is transmitted into the patient and, because various internal organs and structures reflect and scatter sound differently, returning the echoes can be used in the form of images

25

The record produced by ultrasonography is

Sonogram or echogram

26

Doppler echocardiography

An adaptation of ultrasound technology, a non evasive technique for determining the blood flow velocity in different locations of the heart.

27

Thermography

Detailed images of body parts are developed from data showing the degree of heat and cold present in the areas being studied

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Scintigraphy

Involves the production of two-dementional images of tissue areas

29

Nuclear medicine

Field of radiology that uses radioactive substances to produce images of body anatomy and function.

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Positron emission tomography (PET)

PET scan, a nuclear medicine imaging technique that helps physicians see how the organs and tissues inside the body are actually functioning, involves injecting a very small dose of a radioactive chemical called a radiotracer

31

Interventional radiology (IR)

Branch of medicine in which certain diseases are treated nonoperatively. Usually done outpatient basis

32

Interventional radiologist

A physician who has had special training in imaging and who specializes in treating diseases percutaneously

33

Treatment of disease by ionizing radiation is called

Radiotherapy, x-Ray therapy, cobalt treatment, or simply radiation therapy.

34

-gram

Record

35

Angiocardiogram

X-Ray record of the heart and great vessels made visible through the use of raidiopaque contrast medium

36

-graphy

Recording, making an x-Ray record

37

Barium (Ba) sulfate

Radiopaque barium compound used as a contrast medium in x-ray examination of the digestive tract; may be administered orally or via a barium enema (BE)

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Bronchogram

X-Ray record of the bronchial tree made visible through the use of a raidiopaque contrast medium.

39

Cassette

Light-proof case or holder for x-Ray film

40

Cholangiogram

X-Ray record of the bike ducts made visible through the use of a raidiopaque contrast medium

41

Cinematoradiography

Process of making an x-Ray record of an organ in motion

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Curie (Ci)

Unit of radioactivity

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Dose

Amount of medication or radiation to be administered

44

Film

Thin, cellulose-coated, light-sensitive sheet or slip of material used in taking pictures

45

Fluorescence

Property of certain substances to emit light as a result of exposure to and absorption of radiant energy

46

Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)

X-Ray record of the kidney and renal pelvis made visible through the use of an injected radiopaque contrast medium

47

Ion

Atomic particle consisting of an atom or a group of atoms that carry an electrical charge, either negative or positive

48

Ionometer

Instrument used to measure the amount of radiation used by x-rays or radioactive substances

49

Ionotherapy

Treatment by introducing ions into the body

50

-meter

Instrument to measure

51

Irradiation

Process of using x-rays, radium rays, or infrared rays in the diagnosis or therapeutic treatment of a patient

52

Lead (Pb)

Metallic chemical element, protective shielding against x-rays

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Lymphangiogram

X-Ray record of the lymph vessels made visible with raid opaque contrast medium

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Mammography

Process of obtaining x-ray pictures of the breast using a low-dose x-Ray system

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Millicurie (mCi)

Unit of radioactivity

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Myelogram

X-Ray record of the spinal cord made visible with a radiopaque contrast medium

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Physicist

Literal means one who specializes in nature; person who studies the energy, mass, and laws of nature

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myel/o

Spinal cord

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physic

Nature

60

-ist

One who specializes

61

Rad

Amount of radiation absorbed ; the letters stand for radiation absorbed dose

62

Radiodermatitis

Inflammation of the skin caused by exposure to x-rays or radioactive substances

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-er

One who

64

Radilucent

Pertaining to the property of permitting the passage of radiant energy

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Radiopaque

Pertaining to the property of obstructing the passage of radiant energy

66

Radium (Ra)

Radioactive isotope used to treat certain malignant diseases

67

Roentgen (R)

International unit for describing exposure dose of x-Ray or radiation; badge will be able to record this

68

sail/o

Salivary

69

Ba

Barium

70

BSE

Breast self-examination

71

CAT

Computerized axial tomography

72

IV

Intravenous

73

lat

Lateral

74

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

75

PA

Posteroanterior

76

PET

Positron emission tomography

77

PO

Orally, by mouth

78

R

Roentgen