Flashcards in Chapter 21 Deck (122):
Physical and psychological dependence on and craving for a drag.
Drug action in which the combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effect of each.
Particles of drug suspended in the air.
Exaggerated Hypersensitive reaction to a previously encountered drug or foreign protein.
Combination of two drugs gives less than an additive to affect.
Agent given to counteract in an unwanted effect of the drug.
Commercial name for drugs; trademark or trade name.
Chemical formula for drug.
Factors that prevent the use of the drug or treatment.
Drugs that produce tolerance and dependence and have potential for abuse or addiction.
Psychological need for a drug due to the prolonged use.
Amount of drug administrated, usually measured in milligrams.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
US government agency having a legal responsibility for enforcing proper drug manufacturer in clinical use.
Legal noncommercial name for a drug.
Condition caused by treatment given by physician or medical personnel
Unexpected effect produced in a particularly sensitive patient but not seen in most people.
Administration of drugs in gasous or vapor forms through the nose or mouth.
Study of new drug synthesis; relationship between chemical structure in biological effects.
Study of interaction of drugs in their target molecules such as enzymes, or cell surface receptors.
Given by mouth.
Drugs are given by injection into the skin, muscles, or veins (any route other then the digestive tract). Examples are subcutaneous, and intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous, intratrathecal, and intracavitary injections.
Specialist and preparing and dispensing drugs.
Location for preparing and dispensing drugs; also the study of preparing and dispensing drugs.
Study of drug effects within the body
Study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion over a period of time.
Specialist in the study of the properties, uses, and side effects of drugs.
Physicians desk reference (PDR)
Reference book that lists drug products.
Target substance with which a drug interactions in the body.
Drugs are inserted through the anus into the rectum.
Lack of an official response; seen one drugs are unable to control the disease process.
Desired and beneficial effect of a drug
Exact timing and frequency of drug administration.
Adverse reaction, usually minor, that routinely results from the use of a drug.
Drugs are given by placement under the tongue
Combination of two drug causes and effects that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drunk alone
Instrument for introducing or withdrawing fluid from the body
Larger and larger drug doses must be given to achieve the desired effect. The patient becomes resistant to the action of the drug as treatment progresses.
Drugs are applied locally on the skin or mucous membranes of the body; ointments, creams, and lotions are applied topically.
Harmful effects of a drug
Study of harmful chemicals in their effects on the body
Movement of a drug across the cell membrane into body cells
United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
Authoritative list of drugs, formulas, and preparations that set the standard for drug manufacturing and dispensing.
Substance found in foods and essential in small quantities for growth and good health.
Lowers blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors block the conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2.
Central nervous system stimulant
Reduces or eliminates sensation; general and local.
Angiotensin 2 receptor blocker
Lowers blood pressure by preventing angiotensin for acting on receptors in blood vessels.
Neutralizes acid in the stomach
Slows the uptake of androgens and interferes with their effect in tissues.
Treat abnormal heart rhythm
Chemical substance, produced by a plant or microorganism, that has the ability to inhibit or destroy foreign organisms in the body. Examples are antifungals, erythromycin, and penicillins.
Prevent blood clotting
Prevents conversions (abnormal brain activity).
Relieve symptoms of depression
Drug given to prevent or treat diabetes mellitus.
Prevents nausea and vomiting
Blocks the action of histamine and helps women symptoms of allergy
Relieves nausea and vomiting; and antiemetic
Reduces the platelets to stick together and form a clot
Inhibits the secretion of acid by cells lining the stomach
Acts against viruses such as herpesviruses and HIV.
Reduces estrogen in the body by blocking enzyme aromatase.
Inhibits bacterial growth
Blocks the action of epinephrine at sites on receptors of heart muscle cells, the muscle lining of blood vessels, and bronchial tubes; antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and anthypertensive.
Prevents bone loss in osteoporosis.
Central nervous system stimulant
Calcium channel blocker
Blocks the entrance of calcium into heart muscles and muscle lining of blood vessels; used as an antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and antihypertensive; also called calcium antagonist.
Increase the force of concentration of the heart
Acts on the heart and blood vessels. This category of drug includes ACE inhibitors, beta – blockers, calcium channel blockers, cholesterol-lowering drugs or statins, and diuretics.
Cholesterol binding drug
Binds to dietary cholesterol and prevents its uptake from the gastrointestinal tract
Lowers cholesterol by preventing its production by the liver; Statin
Increases the production i'm hearing and that's reduces the volume of fluid in the body; antihypertensive.
A hormone or hormone-like drug
Female hormone that promote development of secondary sex characteristics and supports reproductive tissues.
Relieves symptoms of diseases and the gastrointestinal tract.
Hormone from the adrenal cortex the raises blood sugar and reduces inflammation.
Produces sleep or a trance-like state
Habit-forming drug that relieves pain by producing stupor or insensibility; morphine and opium are examples.
Female hormone that stimulates the uterine lining during pregnancy and is also used in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding and for hormone replacement therapy.
Relieve constipation; strong cathartic.
Treats asthma, emphysema, and infections of the respiratory system. Bronchialdilators are examples
I'm really not a drug that relaxes without necessarily producing sleep. Benzodiazepines are examples.
Excise implement activity. Caffeine and amphetamines are examples.
Stimulate cellular metabolism.
Controls anxiety and severe disturbances of behavior
sensitivity to pain
sheath (of brain and spinal cord)
upward, excessive, again
other than, apart from