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Flashcards in Chapter 21 Deck (122):
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Addiction

Physical and psychological dependence on and craving for a drag.

1

Additive action

Drug action in which the combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effect of each.

2

Aerosol

Particles of drug suspended in the air.

3

Anaphylaxis

Exaggerated Hypersensitive reaction to a previously encountered drug or foreign protein.

4

Antagonistic action

Combination of two drugs gives less than an additive to affect.

5

Antidote

Agent given to counteract in an unwanted effect of the drug.

6

Brand name

Commercial name for drugs; trademark or trade name.

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Chemical name

Chemical formula for drug.

8

Contraindications

Factors that prevent the use of the drug or treatment.

9

Controlled substances

Drugs that produce tolerance and dependence and have potential for abuse or addiction.

10

Dependence

Psychological need for a drug due to the prolonged use.

11

Dose

Amount of drug administrated, usually measured in milligrams.

12

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

US government agency having a legal responsibility for enforcing proper drug manufacturer in clinical use.

13

Generic name

Legal noncommercial name for a drug.

14

Iatrogenic

Condition caused by treatment given by physician or medical personnel

15

Idiosyncratic Reaction

Unexpected effect produced in a particularly sensitive patient but not seen in most people.

16

Inhalation

Administration of drugs in gasous or vapor forms through the nose or mouth.

17

Medicinal chemistry

Study of new drug synthesis; relationship between chemical structure in biological effects.

18

Molecular pharmacology

Study of interaction of drugs in their target molecules such as enzymes, or cell surface receptors.

19

Oral administration

Given by mouth.

20

Parenteral administration

Drugs are given by injection into the skin, muscles, or veins (any route other then the digestive tract). Examples are subcutaneous, and intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous, intratrathecal, and intracavitary injections.

21

Pharmacist

Specialist and preparing and dispensing drugs.

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Pharmacy

Location for preparing and dispensing drugs; also the study of preparing and dispensing drugs.

23

Pharmacodynamics

Study of drug effects within the body

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Pharmacokinetics

Study of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion over a period of time.

25

Pharmacologist

Specialist in the study of the properties, uses, and side effects of drugs.

26

Physicians desk reference (PDR)

Reference book that lists drug products.

27

Receptor

Target substance with which a drug interactions in the body.

28

Rectal administration

Drugs are inserted through the anus into the rectum.

29

Resistance

Lack of an official response; seen one drugs are unable to control the disease process.

30

Response

Desired and beneficial effect of a drug

31

Schedule

Exact timing and frequency of drug administration.

32

Side effect

Adverse reaction, usually minor, that routinely results from the use of a drug.

33

Sublingual administration

Drugs are given by placement under the tongue

34

Synergism

Combination of two drug causes and effects that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drunk alone

35

Syringe

Instrument for introducing or withdrawing fluid from the body

36

Tolerance

Larger and larger drug doses must be given to achieve the desired effect. The patient becomes resistant to the action of the drug as treatment progresses.

37

Topical application

Drugs are applied locally on the skin or mucous membranes of the body; ointments, creams, and lotions are applied topically.

38

Toxicity

Harmful effects of a drug

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Toxicology

Study of harmful chemicals in their effects on the body

40

Transport

Movement of a drug across the cell membrane into body cells

41

United States Pharmacopeia (USP)

Authoritative list of drugs, formulas, and preparations that set the standard for drug manufacturing and dispensing.

42

Vitamin

Substance found in foods and essential in small quantities for growth and good health.

43

ACE inhibitor

Lowers blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors block the conversion of angiotensin 1 to angiotensin 2.

44

Amphetamine

Central nervous system stimulant

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Analgesic

Relieves pain

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Androgen

Male hormone

47

Anesthetic

Reduces or eliminates sensation; general and local.

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Angiotensin 2 receptor blocker

Lowers blood pressure by preventing angiotensin for acting on receptors in blood vessels.

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Antacid

Neutralizes acid in the stomach

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Antiandrogen

Slows the uptake of androgens and interferes with their effect in tissues.

51

Antiarrhythmic

Treat abnormal heart rhythm

52

Antibiotic

Chemical substance, produced by a plant or microorganism, that has the ability to inhibit or destroy foreign organisms in the body. Examples are antifungals, erythromycin, and penicillins.

53

Anticoagulant

Prevent blood clotting

54

Anticonvulsant

Prevents conversions (abnormal brain activity).

55

Antidepressant

Relieve symptoms of depression

56

Antidiarrheal

Prevents diarrhea

57

Antidiabetic

Drug given to prevent or treat diabetes mellitus.

58

Antiemetic

Prevents nausea and vomiting

59

Antihistamine

Blocks the action of histamine and helps women symptoms of allergy

60

Antibnauseant

Relieves nausea and vomiting; and antiemetic

61

Antiplatelet

Reduces the platelets to stick together and form a clot

62

Antiulcer

Inhibits the secretion of acid by cells lining the stomach

63

Antiviral

Acts against viruses such as herpesviruses and HIV.

64

Aromatase inhibitor

Reduces estrogen in the body by blocking enzyme aromatase.

65

Bactericidal

Kills bacteria

66

Bacteriostatic

Inhibits bacterial growth

67

Beta-blocker

Blocks the action of epinephrine at sites on receptors of heart muscle cells, the muscle lining of blood vessels, and bronchial tubes; antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and anthypertensive.

68

Bisphosphonate

Prevents bone loss in osteoporosis.

69

Caffeine

Central nervous system stimulant

70

Calcium channel blocker

Blocks the entrance of calcium into heart muscles and muscle lining of blood vessels; used as an antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and antihypertensive; also called calcium antagonist.

71

Cardiac glycoside

Increase the force of concentration of the heart

72

Cardiovascular drug

Acts on the heart and blood vessels. This category of drug includes ACE inhibitors, beta – blockers, calcium channel blockers, cholesterol-lowering drugs or statins, and diuretics.

73

Cathartic

Relieves constipation

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Cholesterol binding drug

Binds to dietary cholesterol and prevents its uptake from the gastrointestinal tract

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Cholesterol-lowering drug

Lowers cholesterol by preventing its production by the liver; Statin

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Diuretic

Increases the production i'm hearing and that's reduces the volume of fluid in the body; antihypertensive.

77

Emetic

Promotes vomiting

78

Endocrine drug

A hormone or hormone-like drug

79

Estrogen

Female hormone that promote development of secondary sex characteristics and supports reproductive tissues.

80

Gastrointestinal drug

Relieves symptoms of diseases and the gastrointestinal tract.

81

Glucocorticoid

Hormone from the adrenal cortex the raises blood sugar and reduces inflammation.

82

Hypnotic

Produces sleep or a trance-like state

83

LAxative

Weak cathartic.

84

Narcotic

Habit-forming drug that relieves pain by producing stupor or insensibility; morphine and opium are examples.

85

Progestin

Female hormone that stimulates the uterine lining during pregnancy and is also used in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding and for hormone replacement therapy.

86

Purgative

Relieve constipation; strong cathartic.

87

Respiratory drug

Treats asthma, emphysema, and infections of the respiratory system. Bronchialdilators are examples

88

Sedative

I'm really not a drug that relaxes without necessarily producing sleep. Benzodiazepines are examples.

89

Stimulant

Excise implement activity. Caffeine and amphetamines are examples.

90

Thyroid hormone

Stimulate cellular metabolism.

91

Tranquilizer

Controls anxiety and severe disturbances of behavior

92

aer/o

air

93

alges/o

sensitivity to pain

94

bronch/o

bronchial tube

95

chem/o

drug

96

cras/o

mixture

97

cutane/o

skin

98

derm/o

skin

99

erg/o

work

100

esthes/o

feeling, sensation

101

hist/o

tissue

102

hypn/o

sleep

103

iatr/o

treatment

104

lingu/o

tongue

105

myc/o

mold, fungus

106

narc/o

stupor

107

or/o

mouth

108

pharmac/o

drug

109

prurit/o

itching

110

pyret/o

fever

111

thec/o

sheath (of brain and spinal cord)

112

tox/o

poison

113

toxic/o

poison

114

vas/o

vessel

115

ven/o

vein

116

vit/o

life

117

ana-

upward, excessive, again

118

anti-

against

119

contra-

against, opposite

120

par-

other than, apart from

121

syn-

together, with