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What is Progressivism?

A belief by mainly middle class Americans that the social, economic and political progress of the nation required the intervention by concerned citizens willing to initiate reforms at the local, state and national levels

1

From when to when did progressivism last?

It lasted from the mid-1890s to the end of WWI

2

What was progressivism concerned with?

Fair business practice
Public health
Honesty in government
Woman's suffrage
Child labor

3

What established in poor neighborhoods (beginning in 1880s)?

Settlement house movement (England)

4

Who formed the backbone of the settlement house movement?

College educated Women like Jane Adams and Lillian Wald

5

What was the social gospel?

Christian version of reforming individuals and society

6

What was the social gospel a correction to?

Social Darwinism/gospel of faith

7

In the social gospel, _______ is not a signal of divine favor

Wealth

8

What were the temperance/prohibition?

Attacks on alcohol, hand in hand with social purity

9

What element did the temperance/prohibition have?

Nativism

10

Alcoholism was because of the _______ not hereditary and that is human hereditary

Environment

11

(Progressives and the working class)
Labor _________ to settlement houses

Sympathetic

12

(Progressives and the working class)
______ alliance

Cross-class

13

(Progressives and the working class)
In what organization did the working and middle class women unite? What were they under?

Women's Trade Union League (WTUL)
American Federation of labor (AFL)

14

What year was the tragedy at the Triangle Shirtwaist company?

1911

15

What did the tragedy at the triangle shirtwaist company result in?

It resulted in public outcry over safety codes

16

How many women died at the tragedy of the Triangle Shirtwaist company?

146

17

What is the Triangle Shirtwaist company today?

The Brown Building (NYU science lab)

18

Who founded Hull House in 1889?

Jane Addams

19

Who was Roosevelt's successor?

William Taft

20

What paved the way for Wilson's victory in 1912?

The split in the Republican Party

21

What was Progressivism?

A reform movement that often advocated government activism to mitigate the problems created by urban industrialism.

22

When did progressivism reach its peak?

In 1912 with the creation of the Progressive party.

23

What has the term progressive come to mean?

Any general effort advocating for social welfare programs

24

What is a settlement house?

Settlement established in poor neighborhoods beginning in 1880s.

25

What did reformers like Jane Addams and Lillian Wald believe?

They believed that only by living among the poor could they help bridge the growing class divide.

26

_________ formed the backbone of the settlement house movement

College educated women

27

What is the social gospel?

A Vision of Christianity that saw its mission not simply to reform individuals but to reform society

28

When did the settlement house movement come from England to the United States?

In 1886 with the opening of the University Settlement house in New York City.

29

The settlement house movement gave college educated women a chance to _________

Put their talents to use

30

Settlements like Hull House grew from ___ in 1891 to ___ in 1911.

Six
More than four hundred

31

In the process of settlements, what profession did women create?

Social work

32

What famous book did Charles M. Sheldon write?

In his steps (1898)

33

What did the popular book 'In His Steps' call men and women to do?

To Christianize capitalism by asking the question, "What would Jesus do"

34

What was the social purity movement?

The campaign to attack vice

35

To end the "social evil" as reformers delicately referred to prostituiom, the social purity movement brought together:

Ministers who wished to stamp out sin
Doctors concerned about the spread of venereal disease
Women reformers

36

Advanced progressives linked ______ to _____ and championed higher wages for women

Prostitution to poverty

37

When did the Anti-saloon league form?

1895

38

Who was the Anti-Saloon League led by?

Protestant clergy

39

The Anti Saloon league and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union campaigned to __________

End the sale of liquor

40

What's nativism?

Dislike of foreigners

41

What were the three main groups stigmatized by temperance reformers for their drinking?

Irish
Italians
Germans

42

By 1912, ____ states were "dry" meaning they had no alcohol

Seven

43

Who complained that her bookbinders met in a dirty, noisy saloon?

Mary Kenney O'Sullivan

44

When did the attempt to forge a cross-class alliance become institutionalized?

In 1903 with the creation of Women's Trade Union League (WTUL)

45

The WTUL brought together ______ and _______

Woman workers and middle class allies

46

What was the goal of the WTUL?

To organize working women into Unions under the auspices under the American Federation of Labor (AFL)

47

What was the WTUL's most noticeable success?

Came in 1909 in the "uprising of twenty thousand" when hundreds of women employees of the Triangle Shirtwaist company in New York City went to strike to protest low wages, dangerous working conditions and management's refusal to recognize their union, the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union.

48

But for all its success, the uprising of the twenty thousand ________ fundamentally to change conditions for women workers as the tragic triangle fire dramatized in 1911

Failed

49

The owners of the triangle firm went to trial for negligence, but they avoided conviction when authorities determined that ___________ stated the fire.

A careless smoker

50

The Triangle Shirtwaist company reopened in another _______ within a matter of weeks

Firetrap

51

Who made a bitter speech at the memorial service for the dead Triangle workers?

Rose Schneiderman, a leading WTUL organizer

52

WTUL leaders determined that organizing and striking were no longer enough, particularly when the AFL ______ to women workers.

Paid so little attention

53

After the triangle fire the WTUL turned its efforts to ________- laws that would limit hours and regulate women's working conditions

Lobbying for protective registrations.

54

The National Consumer League (NCL) also fostered cross-class alliance and advocated for __________

Protective legislation

55

Who took over the leadership of the NCL in 1899?

Florence Kelley

56

What did Florence Kelley urge?

She urged middle class women to boycott stores and exert pressure for decent wages and working conditions for women employees

57

Why did advocated of protective legislation win a major victory in 1908?

The Supreme Court in Muller v. Oregon reversed its previous rulings and upheld an Oregon law that limited to ten the number of hours women could work a day

58

What did the Muller v. Oregon case limit the amount of hours women could work a day to?

Ten

59

A mass of sociological evidence put together by _________ of the NCL and _________ of the WTUL convinced the court that long house endangered women and therefore the entire human race.

Florence Kelley
Josephine Goldmark

60

The WTUL greeted protective legislation the first step in the attempt to _______

Ensure the safety of all workers

61

Jane Addams insisted that in an urban industrial society that a good housekeeper could not be sure the food she fed her family was pure unless ________

She became involved in politics and wielded the ballot and not just the broom to protect her family

62

Who was the founder of the social gospel movement?

Washington Gladden

63

________ was a pioneer in the settlement house movement and founded Hull House in Chicago

Jane Addams

64

________ was the "mother of public health nursing", and she founded the Henry Street Settlement (NYC)

Lillian Wald

65

Who led the National Consumer League to protect women and children?

Florence Kelley

66

Progressivism was a "liberal movement":

1. Govt. should be more active
2. Social problems are impacted by govt. action and legislation
3. Money is needed to fix problems
4. Reliance upon scientific investigation and academic expertise

67

Who pioneered the study of time and motion?

Frederick Wilson Taylor

68

What did Frederick Wilson Taylor author?

The Principles of Scientific Management (1911)

69

What questioned survival of the fittest?

Reform Darwinism and Social Engineering

70

(Reform Darwinism and Social Engineering)
Use ________ to reform environment

Intellect

71

(Reform Darwinism and Social Engineering)
Who said "blind natural forces in society must give way to human foresight"

Frank Ward, Sociologist

72

What are "technocrats"?

Scientific bureaucrats who attempt to control social change

73

1900: _________ won elections in both local and state govt.

Progressivism

74

Who was the progressive crusader?

Tom Johnson

75

Who was Tom Johnson?

Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio from 1899-1909

76

Mayor Tom Johnson wanted to lower prices of fares from ___-___

5-3 cents

77

Mayor Tom Johnson instituted a new tactic of _________

Municipal ownership

78

(Mayor Tom Johnson)
"Gas and ______ socialism"

Water

79

How many times did Mayor Tom Johnson get reelected?
Why did he eventually lose?

4 times
Lost because of reformers like the street cars

80

What is a referendum?

The practice of submitting a measure passed or proposed by a legislature to the citizen for their approval or rejection

81

What is a recall?

The removal of a public official from office taken by a vote of the people after a petition drive has been certified

82

What is an initiative?

A procedure by which citizens propose an ordinance or an amendment and bring it to a popular vote for approval or rejection

83

Who was the governor of California; US senator?

Hiram Johnson

84

Hiram Johnson was one of the ________ of the progressive party

Founders

85

What date was president William McKinley killed?

September 6, 1901

86

Who was President William McKinley killed by?

Anarchist Leon Czolgosz

87

Where did the Pan-American exposition take place?

Buffalo, NY

88

What sickly disease did Theodore Roosevelt have as a child?

Asthma

89

What was Theodore Roosevelt?

Politician, author, naturalist, soldier, explorer and historian

90

Who was the youngest man to ever move into White House?

Theodore Roosevelt

91

At what age did Theodore Roosevelt move into the White House?

42

92

What number president was Theodore Roosevelt?

26th president

93

Theodore Roosevelt was ________ and leader progressives

republican

94

Theodore Roosevelt was the first president to:

Have full time secret service

95

Theodore Roosevelt strengthened _______ government

Federal

96

Was Theodore Roosevelt for Laissez-faire?

No, he was anti-laissez-faire

97

What were the 3 parts of Theodore Roosevelt's campaign slogan in 1904?

-Natural Resources
-Control of Big Business
-Consumer protection

98

(The Square Deal)
Believed in the __________; this means the president was a "bully pulpit"

Stewardship theory

99

(Theodore Roosevelt and Reforms)
What was the "Trust Buster"?

Northern securities South Carolina case (1904)

100

(Theodore Roosevelt and Reforms)
What is trust?

Corporation gives shares of stock to trustees, coordinate industry

101

(Theodore Roosevelt and Reforms)
How many times were there anti-trust?

43 times

102

(Theodore Roosevelt and Reforms)
What is an arbitrator?

United Mine workers strike (1902)- "square deal"

103

In the arbitrator Roosevelt threatened ______ mine

Seize

104

1906; _________ are signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt

Meat inspection Act and Pure food and Drug act

105

What did the Meat inspection Act and Pure food and Drug act ban?

Ban mislabeled food products and eventually led to the FDA

106

Who was the spearhead of Progressivism?

The Muckrakers

107

What did Lincoln Steffens publish?

The Shame of the Cities (1904)

108

What did Ida Tarbell publish?

The History of the Standard Oil Company (1904)

109

What did Upton Sinclair publish?

The Jungle (1906)

110

What time period did Muckraking take place?

Early-twentieth century

111

What is Muckraking?

Style of journalism that exposed corruption of big business and government

112

(Muckraking)
Roosevelt coined after a ________ (pilgrims progress)

Character

113

(Roosevelt conservation)
From ___ acres of forest in government reserves
Roosevelt quadrupled this number to ___ acres

43 million
194 million

114

Roosevelt was the first president to:

Work and live in the west

115

(Roosevelt conservation)
Conservation in the hands of experts _______ and _______

Gifford Pinchot (chief forester)
John Muir (Sierra club)

116

Who headed the national forest service?

Gifford Pinchot

117

John Muir was a conservationist who helped establish __________
He also founded and headed _________

Yosemite National Park
The Sierra Club

118

(The Big Stick)
Executive power to pursue a vigorous _______

Foreign policy

119

(The Big Stick)
European relations: military strength and diplomacy ________

Reliance

120

(The Big Stick)
Strong supporter of the ________

Monroe Doctrine

121

President Roosevelt extended American influence and supported the idea of the _________

"Civilized" nations

122

Wielded the "Big Stick" in the __________

Western Hemisphere

123

Theodore Roosevelt saw the need for __________

A canal under US control

124

Colombians refused Theodore Roosevelt's offer of _________

10 M w/250,000 yearly

125

US intervened in the ________ against Colombia (1903)

Panamanian revolt

126

The Panama Canal took ____ years

Ten (1904-1914)

127

How much did the Panama Canal cost to build?

$350 million

128

How many Americans lives were lost in building of the Panama Canal?

Over 5,500

129

(Panama Canal)
Who was in charge of operations since Dec 31, 1999?

Panama Canal authority

130

What is The Monroe Doctrine?

European powers should stay out of the Western Hemisphere and the U.S. would stay out of European affairs

131

The ________ to the Monroe doctrine

Roosevelt Corollary

132

What is the Roosevelt Corollary?

In order to prevent such intervention, the US was justified in acting first

133

What did Roosevelt win in 1906?

Nobel Peace Prize

134

Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize after:

Helping Japan and Russia negotiate the Treaty of Portsmouth

135

Japan had invaded Chinese Manchuria- Theodore Roosevelt concerned for _________

Balance of Power

136

1907: Roosevelt send the _________ on a world tour

Great White Fleet
("Speak softly but carry a big stick")

137

Roosevelt does not seek a _______ term

Second

138

Who was Theodore Roosevelt's hand picked successor?

William Howard Taft

139

What did William Howard Taft serve as before president?

Governor of the Philippines and Roosevelt's secretary of war.

140

Who did William Howard Taft defeat in 1908?

W.J. Bryan

141

Did Taft continue Theodore Roosevelt's progressive policies?

No

142

(William H. Taft)
Which tariff did Taft support because it benefited big business?

Payne-Aldrich Tariff

143

(William H. Taft)
Role in the ________ undid hydroelectric power supplie
Pinchot criticizes him therefore he was _______

Ballinger-Pinchot affair
Fired

144

(William H. Taft)
Supporting house speaker __________ agains the republican "insurgents"

Joseph Cannon

145

(Election of 1912)
Theodore Roosevelt joins _________

Presidential race

146

(Election of 1912)
Who did Theodore Roosevelt lose the Republican nomination to?

William H. Taft

147

When Roosevelt loses the republican election, he accepts the nomination of the new progressive party- aka _________

"Bull moose" party

148

(Election of 1912)
Progressive platform included tariff revision, regulation of corporations, increased protection for women and children, and an income tax -________

"New Nationalism"

149

(Election of 1912)
Who did the democrats choose?
He had a progressive reputation

Woodrow Wilson

150

Woodrow Wilson was the president of what university?

Princeton University

151

Woodrow Wilson was the governor of ________

New Jersey

152

Progressive platform- __________

"New freedom"

153

What does the progressive platform support?

Banking and currency reform
Lower tariffs
Conservation
Support for free enterprise while busting all monopolies

154

Name 5 accomplishments of President Wilson.

1. Passage of the Underwood Tariff
2. Creation of the Federal Trade Commission
3. Creation of the Federal Reserve System
4. Signed the Clayton Antitrust act into law
5. Oversaw the passage of amendments sixteen through nineteen

155

What did the Passage of Underwood Tariff accomplish?

It lowered tariffs

156

What was theFederal Trade Commission?

1914- regulatory agency prosecute for 'unfair trade'

157

What's the Federaal Reserve System?

12 regional banks= private but regulated and supervised

158

What did the Clayton Antitrust Act do?

Outlaw 'unfair trade'

159

Wilson disappointed progressive when he claimed that the movement had met all set goals by _____
He rejected further _______

1914
Reform efforts

160

1916: Wilson won reelection in part because he returned to his _________

Progressive groups

161

Ideals of progressivism were challenged by competing groups such as _________

Socialist

162

What was the Radical Labor Union?

The international workers of the world

163

What was the Radical Labor Union also known as?

"Wobblies"

164

Who was the leader of the Radical Labor Union?

"Big Bull" Haywood

165

Who was Margaret Sagner?

Nurse and activist who introduced the term "birth control" and saw the issue in political terms

166

Sagner opened a birth control clinic in __________ in 1916; shutdown by the police and she was arrested

Brooklyn, NY

167

(Sagner and Eugenics)
The _____ side of the Birth control movement

Evil

168

What is the definition of Eugenics?

Believe in improving the genetics or the human race

169

(Sagner and Eugenics)
Sagner sought common cause with this group which also wanted ______

Birth control

170

Issue of Woman suffrage became more agent after 1915 when ___________ became president of the NAWSA

Carrie Chapman Catt

171

Who founded the more militant National Woman's party?

Alice Paul

172

Reform Darwinism

Sociological theory in 1880s that argued humans can speed up evolution by altering their environment

173

The New Nationalism

Roosevelt's 1912 campaign slogan which protected his commitment to federal planning and regulation

174

The New Freedom

Woodrow Wilson's 1912 campaign slogan, which reflected his belief in limited government and states rights

175

Socialist Party

Political party formed in 1900 that advocated cooperation over competition and promoted the breakdown of capitalism

176

Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)

Umbrella union and radical political group founded in 1905 that was dedicated to organizing unskilled workers to oppose capitalism

177

Birth control movement

Movement launched in 1915 by Margaret Sagner in New York's lower east side

178

Plessy v. Ferguson

1896 Supreme Court ruling that upheld legality of racial segregation.