Chapter 21: Cardiovascular system and Heart Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21: Cardiovascular system and Heart Deck (42):
1

describe the cardiovascular system (4)

Vital for survival
Carries oxygen & nutrients to tissues
Carries wastes away from tissues
Closed system

2

the cardiovascular system is a double circuit. What are the two circuits? describe them

1.) Pulmonary
-Heart to lungs & back
-Oxygenates blood
2.) Systemic
-Heart to body & back
-Delivers oxygen to tissues

3

describe the structure of the heart (5)

-Cone shaped
-Inside pericardial cavity
-inside mediastinum
-apex tipped toward the inferior and left
-base superior

4

describe the membranes of the heart

Pericardium
-double serous membrane with fibrous coat
-made of several layers
Parietal pericardium
-outer layer of sac
-Fibrous and areolar layer
Epicardium
-A.k.a. visceral pericardium
-inner layer of sac
-Adheres to the heart wall

5

where is the pericardial cavity located and what does it contain?

located between membrane layers and contains serous fluid

6

what three things are in the wall of the heart/ make up the wall of the heart?

Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium

7

describe the epicardium (2)

visceral pericardium
functions as protective outer layer

8

describe the myocardium (3)

middle layer
responsible for contractions
made of cardiac muscle

9

describe the endocardium (3)

inner layer
lines & protects chambers & valves
continuous with endothelium of heart blood vessels

10

describe cardiac muscle tissue (5)

striated
aerobic respiration
short T-tubules
autorhythmic
connected mechanically & chemically
-intercalated discs
-gap junctions

11

how many chambers are there in the heart? what are they

4 chambers
- 2 atria (right and left)
-2 ventricles (right and left)

12

describe the atria (3)

superior chambers
receive blood from veins
have auricles (flaps where blood pools)

13

describe the ventricles (2)

inferior chambers
force blood out to arteries

14

what are the structural differences between the right and left ventricles?

Left thicker & stronger
Right goes only to lungs
Left is round
Right pouch shaped

15

describe the two atrioventricular valves

Tricuspid valve
-aka right AV valve
-at right atrioventricular orifice
-open when atrial force is greater & close when -ventricular force is greater
-3 cusps
Bicuspid (mitral) valve
-aka left AV valve
-at left atrioventricular orifice
-2 cusps

16

what are the "heart strings" called? describe them

Chordae Tendonae
-hold valves in place
-attached to cusps on ventricle side

17

what do the chordae tendonae prevent?

cusps from collapsing into atria when valve is closed
Backflow of blood

18

describe the papillary muscles (2)

small bundles of muscles
-Attach to the chordae tendonae
-when valves close, these muscles contract & tighten cords

19

scaffolding on interior walls are known as what?

Trabeculae Carneae

20

semilunar valves are located where?
what are the two?

-between a ventricle and an artery
-Pulmonary and Aortic

21

describe the pulmonary valve

right
at entrance to pulmonary trunk
opens when right ventricle contracts

22

describe the aortic valve

right
at entrance to pulmonary trunk
opens when right ventricle contracts

23

describe the path that blood takes through the heart

slide 15 and 16

24

what does coronary circulation do?

supplies the heart tissues with blood

25

what happens if the coronary circulation gets blocked?

blockage can result in heart tissue dying

26

where do the coronary arteries branch off?

Branch directly off of the aorta as it emerges

27

what are the two branches off the right coronary artery?

posterior interventricular artery
marginal artery

28

what are two branches off the left coronary artery?

circumflex artery
anterior interventricular artery

29

what do cardiac veins do?

drain myocardium
travel with arteries

30

what are the three cardiac veins?
What is the other cardiac vein called and what does it empty into?

Great
Middle
Small
-Coronary sinus: empties into right atrium

31

what is the contractile phase; chamber empties

systole

32

what is the relaxation phase; chambers fill

diastole

33

describe what happens when your heart makes the "Lub" and "Dup" sounds

“Lub” = AV valves close
“Dup” = semi-lunar valves close

34

Heart beat is enabled by what 2 things? describe them

1.) nodal cells
-specialized muscle cells that conduct action potentials
2.) conducting fibers
-distributes stimulus to myocardium

35

true or false: AP’s move down heart, causing it to contract unevenly

true
*atria contract before ventricles

36

what are the 5 steps in the conduction system of the heart?

1.) SA node activity and atrial activation begin
2.) Stimulus spreads across the atrial surfaces and reaches the AV node
3.) There is a 100-msec delay at the AV node. Atrial contraction begins
4.) The impulse travels along the interventricular septum within the AV bundle and the bundle branches to the Purkinje fibers and, via the the moderator band, to the papillary muscles of the right ventricle
5.) The impulse is distributed by the Purkinje fibers and relayed throughout the ventricular myocardium. Atrial contraction is completed, and ventricular contraction begins

37

describe the SA (sinoatrial) node (3)

pacemaker
spontaneously depolarizes
At the back wall of right atrium

38

describe the AV (atrioventricular) node (2)

-where 4 chambers meet
-Signal transmitted to AV (atrioventricular) node through internodal pathways

39

the AV (atrioventricular) bundle....

transmits down interventricular septum

40

describe bundle branches (3)

Branch off the AV bundle
Moves further down the septum
one supplies each ventricle

41

describe Purkinje Fibers (2)

-reflect up external wall of ventricle
-extend into papillary muscles

42

slide 27 and 28

because I'm lazy and don't know how to make these cards really into flashcards