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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (72):
0

Sternpost Rudder

Matthew Bagby

Chinese invention that spread across the Indian Ocean, and Europeans found out through Arab ships in the Mediterranean.

1

Astrolabes

Matthew Bagby

Soon replaced cross sails and back sails; simplified version of compass; used by Greek and Persian astronomers to determine the latitude; they did this by measuring the angle of the sun or the pole star above the horizon

2

Magnetic Compass

Matthew Bagby

Most important navigational instrument; Chinese invention of the Tang or Song dynasty in the 11th century

3

Square Sails

Matthew Bagby

Enabled them to take full advantage of a wind blowing from behind them but did not work in cross winds

4

Triangular Lateens sails

Matthew Bagby

Vary maneuverable and can catch winds from the side as well as from behind; a combination of these and a square sails allowed sailors to sail wherever they want and gave them an ability to advance against the wind by sailing across it which was crucial for exploration and uncooperative winds.

5

This person conquered lands for the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean Basin and SE Asia.

Alfonso d'Alboquerque

(Thomas DeLong)

6

This person sailed past the Cape of Good Hope in 1488.

Bartolomeu Dias

(Thomas DeLong)

7

This Portuguese prince sponsored lots of early exploration.

Prince Henry the Navigator

(Thomas DeLong)

8

This person led the first voyage to circumnavigate the world, but died before it was completed.

Ferdinand Magellan

(Thomas DeLong)

9

This explorer was the first European to cross the Isthmus of Panama and reach the Pacific from the New World.

Vasco Núñez de Balboa

(Thomas DeLong)

10

What is the volta do mar?

Venteicher

Portuguese strategy "return through the sea" enabled them to sail from the Canaries to Portugal. Sailed in open ocean until they found a westerly wind. Much faster and safer

11

What is the astrolabe?

Venteicher

a simplified version of instrument by Persian and Greek astronomers to determine latitude

12

Why were triangular lateen sails better than square sails?

Venteicher

they worked better in cross winds

13

What is the Columbian Exchange?

Venteicher

Named after Columbus.
Global diffusion of plants, animals, human populations, and disease pathogens.
Created links between previously independent time zones and permanently altered the world's human geography and natural environment.

14

Which were the two main joint-stock trading companies?

Venteicher

English East India Trading Company
Dutch United East India Company (VOC)

15

What was the wealthy family who hired the adventurer Yermak that began Russian expansion in 1581?

Dalinghaus

Stroganov family

16

Maluku

Rall

Produced cloves and nutmeg that was highly valued in Europe

17

Calicut

Rall

Indian port. Vasco da Gama arrived here saying he wanted Christians and spices

18

Cape of Good Hope

Rall

Southernmost point of Africa. Entry way into Indian Ocean

19

Ceuta

Rall

Moroccan port. Conquered by Prince Henry of Portugal. Used to establish other port cities down the western coast of Africa.

20

Indian Ocean

Rall

Center for Eurasian trade. Beginning with Portugal in 1500 it was controlled by European powers

21

These people of Siberia revolted against Russian oppresion in 1642

Dalinghaus

Yakut people

22

This Caribbean tribe was the first group of indigenous people of the Americas to come into contact with Christopher Columbus

Dalinghaus

Taino

23

European mariners

Dalinghaus

created globe-girdling networks of transportation, communication, and exchange that supported cross-cultural interactions much more systematic than earlier times

24

Russian explorers

Dalinghaus

Their expanision was mostly land-based until, later, around the 18th century, they started exploring the Pacific Ocean

25

Joint-Stock Company

Vinsant

A company that allows private people to own a share of the company. Little to no Government influence. Ex. East India Trading Company and VOC.

26

Spice Islands

Vinsant

Small Group of Indonesian Islands that specialize in production of spices. They were constantly fought over by European Powers

27

Population Growth

Vinsant

Despite new plagues brought to the Americas, the globalization of maize and potatoes in particular allowed for the population to from 455 million in 1500 to 900 million in 1800

28

Monopoly

Vinsant

An exclusive possession of trade in a certain commodity. Ex. VOC on Spice Trade

29

Smallpox

Vinsant

Old World disease that have ravishing effects on the New World because of a lack of immunity.

30

Potatoes

Sullivan

American crop very popular in Northern Europe, from Ireland to Russia, because of its impressive nutritional qualities.

31

This epidemic disease was brought to Central America and greatly ravaged societies like the Aztecs.

Smallpox

Jake Sullivan

31

Maize

Sullivan

American crop that was especially important in China because it grew in eco-niches unsuitable for rice and millet production.

32

Quinine

Sullivan

American medicinal plant that was the first effective treatment for malaria and proved vital to Europeans trying to survive mosquito-ridden tropics.

33

Transoceanic migration

Sullivan

Enslaved Africans traded to Americas made up majority of migration. Many wanted to escape disease ridden locations.

34

Sugar

Sullivan

Trade good made in Mexican and Peruvian mines greatly demanded by the European populations.

35

A Philippine Spain controlled port city that quickly became the hub for Spanish trade in Asia.

Manila

Hutto

36

A Dutch founded city on the island of Java in Indonesia located near the Sunda Strait which attracted more activity while it traded spices including cloves, nutmeg and mace.

Batavia

Hutto

37

Capital of the Portuguese colonies in Asia until 1961, this city mainly controlled the trade of Indian pepper.

Goa

Hutto

38

What are the Canary Islands?

Islands of the coast of Northwest Africa that were used by European explorers (Like Columbus, Da Gama) as refuel stops (Pfaff)

39

What is the Cape of Good Hope?

The cape of Africa (in the South), first rounded by Dias in 1488, and Da Gama in 1497 (both from Portugal) (Pfaff)

40

Portuguese Empire(Reller)

Empire that was the first to travel to and set up European trade in the Indian Ocean Basin

41

What is the Island of San Salvador (Watling Island)?

Where Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas in October 1942, renamed from native Guanahani (Pfaff)

42

This Russian city acquired from Mongol khanates was located on the Volga Delta and opened up trade opportunities for Russia with the Ottoman Empire, Iran, and India through the Caspian Sea.

Astrakhan

Hutto

43

What is Vancouver Island?

In Canada, the northernmost extent of Sir Francis Drake's exploration of North America for a Northwest exploration (Pfaff)

44

What is Prussia?

The European country that was allied with England in the Seven Years War and that fought primarily on land (Pfaff)

45

A Muslim kingdom in Iberia that was taken by Spain during the reconquista.

Granada

Hutto

46

What is the triangular lateen?


Grady Barackman

A new innovation for a sail.

47

What is circumnavigation?

Grady Barackman

The travel around an island or price of land.

48

What was the reconquista?


Grady Barackman

The reconquista was the retake of Spain from the Muslims by the Christians.

49

What are Manila galleons?

Grady Barackman

Manila galleons are the giant trading ships with precious medals.

50

Eastern hemisphere

Riley

Contains everything from Europe and Africa to Japan and the east coast of Russia

51

What are astrolabes?

Grady Barackman

Astrolabes were the tools that traders used to navigate the sea.

52

Alfonso d'Alboquerque seized which three places between 1508 and 1511

Seized Hormuz in 1508, Goa in 1510, and Melaka in 1511

Harrison Donnelly

53

Where did the Spanish lead conquests

Philippines

Harrison Donnelly

54

Where were British and French forces fighting?

North America

Harrison Donnelly

55

After the seven year war which places did Britain control

India, Canada, and Florida

Harrison Donnelly

56

Where did British and French forces fight?

The Caribbean

Harrison Donnelly

57

Which country had useful nautical tools such as the magnetic compass and the rutter

Ryan Chandler

China

58

Where was Columbus trying to go?


Ryan Chandler

India

59

What trade item was essential to upperclass europeans?


Ryan Chandler

Spices

60

Why was there a need for sea route trading?


Ryan Chandler

Bubonic plague blocked land trade

61

Rival trading countries


Ryan Chandler

Dutch and England.

62

Ferdinand Magelan

Portuguese navigator in service of Spain who was the first person to circumnavigate the world. He died though on a Philippine island on way home. (Henry Goeke)

63

Captain James Cook

British explorer who led three expeditions to the Pacific, the Arctic, and Australia; he died in Hawaii. (Henry Goeke)

64

Christopher Columbus

Genoese mariner who tried sailing to the Asian markets by going directly west. He ran into the Bahamas in 1492 and then went up to North America. (Henry Goeke)

65

Vasco de Gama

Portugal explorer who crossed the Indian Ocean; and reached India in 1497. (Henry Goeke)

66

Alfonso d'Alboquerque

sixteenth-centruy Portuguese commander in the Indian Ocean. He forced all merchant ships to pay a safe-conduct pass or he would destroy their fleet. (Henry Goeke)

67

What major land masses are in the Western Hemisphere?

Riley

The Americas, Iceland, and Greenland.

68

Latitude

Riley

Lines that run from the North Pole to the South Pole

69

Why were ocean currents and wind patterns important?

Riley

They helped maritime traders travel easier and further

70

Acquired immunities

Riley

Immunity that is acquired by exposure to various diseases