Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (72):
Chinese invention that spread across the Indian Ocean, and Europeans found out through Arab ships in the Mediterranean.
Soon replaced cross sails and back sails; simplified version of compass; used by Greek and Persian astronomers to determine the latitude; they did this by measuring the angle of the sun or the pole star above the horizon
Most important navigational instrument; Chinese invention of the Tang or Song dynasty in the 11th century
Enabled them to take full advantage of a wind blowing from behind them but did not work in cross winds
Triangular Lateens sails
Vary maneuverable and can catch winds from the side as well as from behind; a combination of these and a square sails allowed sailors to sail wherever they want and gave them an ability to advance against the wind by sailing across it which was crucial for exploration and uncooperative winds.
This person conquered lands for the Portuguese in the Indian Ocean Basin and SE Asia.
This person sailed past the Cape of Good Hope in 1488.
This Portuguese prince sponsored lots of early exploration.
Prince Henry the Navigator
This person led the first voyage to circumnavigate the world, but died before it was completed.
This explorer was the first European to cross the Isthmus of Panama and reach the Pacific from the New World.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa
What is the volta do mar?
Portuguese strategy "return through the sea" enabled them to sail from the Canaries to Portugal. Sailed in open ocean until they found a westerly wind. Much faster and safer
What is the astrolabe?
a simplified version of instrument by Persian and Greek astronomers to determine latitude
Why were triangular lateen sails better than square sails?
they worked better in cross winds
What is the Columbian Exchange?
Named after Columbus.
Global diffusion of plants, animals, human populations, and disease pathogens.
Created links between previously independent time zones and permanently altered the world's human geography and natural environment.
Which were the two main joint-stock trading companies?
English East India Trading Company
Dutch United East India Company (VOC)
What was the wealthy family who hired the adventurer Yermak that began Russian expansion in 1581?
Produced cloves and nutmeg that was highly valued in Europe
Indian port. Vasco da Gama arrived here saying he wanted Christians and spices
Cape of Good Hope
Southernmost point of Africa. Entry way into Indian Ocean
Moroccan port. Conquered by Prince Henry of Portugal. Used to establish other port cities down the western coast of Africa.
Center for Eurasian trade. Beginning with Portugal in 1500 it was controlled by European powers
These people of Siberia revolted against Russian oppresion in 1642
This Caribbean tribe was the first group of indigenous people of the Americas to come into contact with Christopher Columbus
created globe-girdling networks of transportation, communication, and exchange that supported cross-cultural interactions much more systematic than earlier times
Their expanision was mostly land-based until, later, around the 18th century, they started exploring the Pacific Ocean
A company that allows private people to own a share of the company. Little to no Government influence. Ex. East India Trading Company and VOC.
Small Group of Indonesian Islands that specialize in production of spices. They were constantly fought over by European Powers
Despite new plagues brought to the Americas, the globalization of maize and potatoes in particular allowed for the population to from 455 million in 1500 to 900 million in 1800
An exclusive possession of trade in a certain commodity. Ex. VOC on Spice Trade
Old World disease that have ravishing effects on the New World because of a lack of immunity.
American crop very popular in Northern Europe, from Ireland to Russia, because of its impressive nutritional qualities.
This epidemic disease was brought to Central America and greatly ravaged societies like the Aztecs.
American crop that was especially important in China because it grew in eco-niches unsuitable for rice and millet production.
American medicinal plant that was the first effective treatment for malaria and proved vital to Europeans trying to survive mosquito-ridden tropics.
Enslaved Africans traded to Americas made up majority of migration. Many wanted to escape disease ridden locations.
Trade good made in Mexican and Peruvian mines greatly demanded by the European populations.
A Philippine Spain controlled port city that quickly became the hub for Spanish trade in Asia.
A Dutch founded city on the island of Java in Indonesia located near the Sunda Strait which attracted more activity while it traded spices including cloves, nutmeg and mace.
Capital of the Portuguese colonies in Asia until 1961, this city mainly controlled the trade of Indian pepper.
What are the Canary Islands?
Islands of the coast of Northwest Africa that were used by European explorers (Like Columbus, Da Gama) as refuel stops (Pfaff)
What is the Cape of Good Hope?
The cape of Africa (in the South), first rounded by Dias in 1488, and Da Gama in 1497 (both from Portugal) (Pfaff)
Empire that was the first to travel to and set up European trade in the Indian Ocean Basin
What is the Island of San Salvador (Watling Island)?
Where Christopher Columbus landed in the Bahamas in October 1942, renamed from native Guanahani (Pfaff)
This Russian city acquired from Mongol khanates was located on the Volga Delta and opened up trade opportunities for Russia with the Ottoman Empire, Iran, and India through the Caspian Sea.
What is Vancouver Island?
In Canada, the northernmost extent of Sir Francis Drake's exploration of North America for a Northwest exploration (Pfaff)
What is Prussia?
The European country that was allied with England in the Seven Years War and that fought primarily on land (Pfaff)
A Muslim kingdom in Iberia that was taken by Spain during the reconquista.
What is the triangular lateen?
A new innovation for a sail.
What is circumnavigation?
The travel around an island or price of land.
What was the reconquista?
The reconquista was the retake of Spain from the Muslims by the Christians.
What are Manila galleons?
Manila galleons are the giant trading ships with precious medals.
Contains everything from Europe and Africa to Japan and the east coast of Russia
What are astrolabes?
Astrolabes were the tools that traders used to navigate the sea.
Alfonso d'Alboquerque seized which three places between 1508 and 1511
Seized Hormuz in 1508, Goa in 1510, and Melaka in 1511
Where did the Spanish lead conquests
Where were British and French forces fighting?
After the seven year war which places did Britain control
India, Canada, and Florida
Where did British and French forces fight?
Which country had useful nautical tools such as the magnetic compass and the rutter
Where was Columbus trying to go?
What trade item was essential to upperclass europeans?
Why was there a need for sea route trading?
Bubonic plague blocked land trade
Rival trading countries
Dutch and England.
Portuguese navigator in service of Spain who was the first person to circumnavigate the world. He died though on a Philippine island on way home. (Henry Goeke)
Captain James Cook
British explorer who led three expeditions to the Pacific, the Arctic, and Australia; he died in Hawaii. (Henry Goeke)
Genoese mariner who tried sailing to the Asian markets by going directly west. He ran into the Bahamas in 1492 and then went up to North America. (Henry Goeke)
Vasco de Gama
Portugal explorer who crossed the Indian Ocean; and reached India in 1497. (Henry Goeke)
sixteenth-centruy Portuguese commander in the Indian Ocean. He forced all merchant ships to pay a safe-conduct pass or he would destroy their fleet. (Henry Goeke)
What major land masses are in the Western Hemisphere?
The Americas, Iceland, and Greenland.
Lines that run from the North Pole to the South Pole
Why were ocean currents and wind patterns important?
They helped maritime traders travel easier and further