Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (66):
What two organs make up the Central Nervous System (CNS)?
2. Spinal Cord
What makes up the Peripheral Nervous System?
Nerves that branch out from the Brain and the Spinal Cord
Cerebrospinal fluid is located in the _________ space.
What is a spinal tap and a reason to perform this procedure?
Involves withdrawing cerebrospinal fluid to examine and diagnose disorders in the brain and/or spinal cord.
What is infected in Bacterial Meningitis?
Any one of the 3 membranes.
What is infected in Encephalitis?
The general symptoms of the different kinds of Meningitis are often the ____.
What is often the first symptom of Bacterial Meningitis?
A severe headache that is NOT helped by the use of medicines (such as Tylenol or Ibuprofen).
What are some of the general symptoms of Bacterial Meningitis?
severe headache, neck/muscle stiffness, nausea, vomiting, fever, convulsions, coma
What is Nisseria meningitides?
A gram - cocci bacteria that can cause meningitis.
What is Hemophilus influenza?
A gram - rod bacteria.
What is Streptococcus pneumoniae?
A bacteria that can cause meningitis in children and pneumonia in the elderly.
What are two medicines that can treat Streptococcus pneumoniae?
penicillin and ampicillin
What are some of the other bacteria that can cause meningitis?
mycobacterium tuberculosis, leptospira (3rd generation cephalesporins).
What is Listeria monocytogenes?
A gram + rod bacteria that causes Listeriosis.
What are some of the reservoirs for Listeria monocytogenes?
animal feces, soil, water, dairy products
Listeria monocytogenes is most commonly transmitted through ____?
Listeria monocytogenes bacteria can cause circling disease in _________?
Listeria monocytogenes can cause what in pregnant women?
abortion or still birth
What is involved in a cold enrichment culture?
blending the meat, putting into a liquid, put it into the fridge and leave it for 4 weeks, isolate the bacteria afterward to examine.
What kind of bacteria is a cold enrichment culture used for?
What is Clostridium tetani?
an obligate anaerobe, gram positive rods; causes tetanus
What are two reservoirs for Clostridium tetani?
animal feces and soil
What is the mode of transmission for Clostridium tetani?
Does Clostridium tetani involve an endotoxin or an exotoxin?
The exotoxin in Clostridium tetani has a neurotoxin that causes what symptoms?
nonstop muscle contractions; can also cause muscle spasms and lock jaw
What is the vaccine for Tetanus called?
How long does the DTP vaccine last?
There is no Tetanus vaccine for ________.
Botulism is caused by the gram + bacteria called _________________.
What is the mode of transmission for Clostridium botulinum?
In Botulism the bacteria blocks ___________, causing paralysis.
What are symptoms of Botulism?
muscle weakness, difficulty swallowing, respiratory muscle failure, paralysis, death
Where is Clostridium botulinum most commonly found?
in home canned meat products.
What are the 3 types of toxins in Botulism? Which one is the most common?
A, B, E
A is the most common
______ can be associated with Botulism, and shouldn't be given to anyone under the age of 1.
What is the treatment for Botulism?
Trivalent antitoxin; all 3 toxins.
The toxin binding nerves in Botulism is NOT __________.
What is Poliomyelitis?
a nonenveloped RNA virus; an Enterovirus.
Poliomyelitis can cause what major symptom?
What is the mode of transmission for Poliomyelitis?
ingestion of contaminated food and water; often causes diarrhea.
In most countries Polomyelitis is __________.
There is an __ week incubation period for rabies.
What 2 things are used to diagnose rabies?
1. clinical symptoms
2. IF test (viral antigen detection in saliva).
What is the only virus for which a vaccine can be given before and/or after infection?
What is the most common mode of transmission for rabies?
unprovoked attack by animals; bite by dog
What are the 5 types of Arthropod-Borne Encephalitis?
1. St Louis Encephalitis
2. Eastern Equine Encephalitis
3. Western Equine Encephalitis
4. California Encephalitis
5. West Nile Virus
What is the main reservoir of St Louis Encephalitis?
Is Arthoropod-Borne Encephalitis more common in summer or winter months?
What is the main reservoir for California Encephalitis?
What is the main reservoir for Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis?
Birds and Horses
What can reduce the prevalence of Arthropod-Borne Encephalitis?
What are the two types of vaccines for poliovirus?
1. Inactivated polio vaccine
2. Live poliovaccine
What is Rhabdovirus?
a bullet shaped RNA virus that can cause Rabies
Once rabies reaches the brain it is _____.
What are some of the animals that are reservoirs for Rabies?
raccoons, skunks, bats, foxes, dogs, cats, cattle.
What is Cryptococcus neoformans?
a fungal disease that can cause fungal meningitis
What is the most common treatment for fungal diseases including Cryptococcus neoformans?
What is African trypanosomiasis?
a protozoan disease.
What is Antigenic Variation?
When there is a very high rate of mutation (changing of the coat proteins) making it hard to make a vaccine.
African trypanosomiasis has __________ ___________.
What is Naegleria fowleri?
A protozoan disease in which a protozoa enters through the nose and into the brain.
Where is Naegleria fowleri most commonly gotten?
When swimming in contaminated waters.
What are unconventional agents?
In which disease will you find prions?
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathiae (BSE; mad cow disease)