Chapter 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (66):
1

What two organs make up the Central Nervous System (CNS)?

1. Brain
2. Spinal Cord

2

What makes up the Peripheral Nervous System?

Nerves that branch out from the Brain and the Spinal Cord

3

Cerebrospinal fluid is located in the _________ space.

Subarachnoid

4

What is a spinal tap and a reason to perform this procedure?

Involves withdrawing cerebrospinal fluid to examine and diagnose disorders in the brain and/or spinal cord.

5

What is infected in Bacterial Meningitis?

Any one of the 3 membranes.

6

What is infected in Encephalitis?

The Brain.

7

The general symptoms of the different kinds of Meningitis are often the ____.

Same.

8

What is often the first symptom of Bacterial Meningitis?

A severe headache that is NOT helped by the use of medicines (such as Tylenol or Ibuprofen).

9

What are some of the general symptoms of Bacterial Meningitis?

severe headache, neck/muscle stiffness, nausea, vomiting, fever, convulsions, coma

10

What is Nisseria meningitides?

A gram - cocci bacteria that can cause meningitis.

11

What is Hemophilus influenza?

A gram - rod bacteria.

12

What is Streptococcus pneumoniae?

A bacteria that can cause meningitis in children and pneumonia in the elderly.

13

What are two medicines that can treat Streptococcus pneumoniae?

penicillin and ampicillin

14

What are some of the other bacteria that can cause meningitis?

mycobacterium tuberculosis, leptospira (3rd generation cephalesporins).

15

What is Listeria monocytogenes?

A gram + rod bacteria that causes Listeriosis.

16

What are some of the reservoirs for Listeria monocytogenes?

animal feces, soil, water, dairy products

17

Listeria monocytogenes is most commonly transmitted through ____?

meat

18

Listeria monocytogenes bacteria can cause circling disease in _________?

animals

19

Listeria monocytogenes can cause what in pregnant women?

abortion or still birth

20

What is involved in a cold enrichment culture?

blending the meat, putting into a liquid, put it into the fridge and leave it for 4 weeks, isolate the bacteria afterward to examine.

21

What kind of bacteria is a cold enrichment culture used for?

Listeria monocytogenes

22

What is Clostridium tetani?

an obligate anaerobe, gram positive rods; causes tetanus

23

What are two reservoirs for Clostridium tetani?

animal feces and soil

24

What is the mode of transmission for Clostridium tetani?

wound contamination

25

Does Clostridium tetani involve an endotoxin or an exotoxin?

exotoxin

26

The exotoxin in Clostridium tetani has a neurotoxin that causes what symptoms?

nonstop muscle contractions; can also cause muscle spasms and lock jaw

27

What is the vaccine for Tetanus called?

DTP

28

How long does the DTP vaccine last?

10 years

29

There is no Tetanus vaccine for ________.

animals

30

Botulism is caused by the gram + bacteria called _________________.

Clostridium botulinum

31

What is the mode of transmission for Clostridium botulinum?

food

32

In Botulism the bacteria blocks ___________, causing paralysis.

acetylecholine

33

What are symptoms of Botulism?

muscle weakness, difficulty swallowing, respiratory muscle failure, paralysis, death

34

Where is Clostridium botulinum most commonly found?

in home canned meat products.

35

What are the 3 types of toxins in Botulism? Which one is the most common?

A, B, E

A is the most common

36

______ can be associated with Botulism, and shouldn't be given to anyone under the age of 1.

honey

37

What is the treatment for Botulism?

Trivalent antitoxin; all 3 toxins.

38

The toxin binding nerves in Botulism is NOT __________.

reversible

39

What is Poliomyelitis?

a nonenveloped RNA virus; an Enterovirus.

40

Poliomyelitis can cause what major symptom?

symptoms

41

What is the mode of transmission for Poliomyelitis?

ingestion of contaminated food and water; often causes diarrhea.

42

In most countries Polomyelitis is __________.

eradicated

43

There is an __ week incubation period for rabies.

8

44

What 2 things are used to diagnose rabies?

1. clinical symptoms
2. IF test (viral antigen detection in saliva).

45

What is the only virus for which a vaccine can be given before and/or after infection?

Rabies

46

What is the most common mode of transmission for rabies?

unprovoked attack by animals; bite by dog

47

What are the 5 types of Arthropod-Borne Encephalitis?

1. St Louis Encephalitis
2. Eastern Equine Encephalitis
3. Western Equine Encephalitis
4. California Encephalitis
5. West Nile Virus

48

What is the main reservoir of St Louis Encephalitis?

birds

49

Is Arthoropod-Borne Encephalitis more common in summer or winter months?

summer months

50

What is the main reservoir for California Encephalitis?

small mammals

51

What is the main reservoir for Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis?

Birds and Horses

52

What can reduce the prevalence of Arthropod-Borne Encephalitis?

mosquito control

53

What are the two types of vaccines for poliovirus?

1. Inactivated polio vaccine
2. Live poliovaccine

54

What is Rhabdovirus?

a bullet shaped RNA virus that can cause Rabies

55

Once rabies reaches the brain it is _____.

fatal

56

What are some of the animals that are reservoirs for Rabies?

raccoons, skunks, bats, foxes, dogs, cats, cattle.

57

What is Cryptococcus neoformans?

a fungal disease that can cause fungal meningitis

58

What is the most common treatment for fungal diseases including Cryptococcus neoformans?

Amphoterecin B

59

What is African trypanosomiasis?

a protozoan disease.

60

What is Antigenic Variation?

When there is a very high rate of mutation (changing of the coat proteins) making it hard to make a vaccine.

61

African trypanosomiasis has __________ ___________.

antigenic variation

62

What is Naegleria fowleri?

A protozoan disease in which a protozoa enters through the nose and into the brain.

63

Where is Naegleria fowleri most commonly gotten?

When swimming in contaminated waters.

64

What are unconventional agents?

prions

65

In which disease will you find prions?

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathiae (BSE; mad cow disease)

66

What is the name for BSE when a human has it?

Creutzfield-Jacob Disease