Chapter 22 Anticonvulsants Flashcards Preview

Nursing > Chapter 22 Anticonvulsants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 22 Anticonvulsants Deck (28):
0

What are the 3 ways AED works

Suppressing sodium influx
Suppressing calcium influx
Increasing action of GABA

1

What is therapeutic range of Dilantin

10 to 20

2

Inhibit sodium influx
Hydantoins or barbiturates

Hyantoins

3

Enhance GABA
barbiturates or hydantoins

Barbs

4

Inhibit calcium influx
Hydantoins, barbs or succinimides

Succinimides

5

Side effects of AEDs

G-gingival hyperplasia
U-use alternate birth control
M-mouth care
S-don't stop abruptly

6

What are the 3 classes of AEDS

Benzos - used for quick control (clonazepam, clorazepate, diazepam)
Iminostilbenes- short half life (tegretol, oxcarbazepine)
Valproate (valproic acid and depakote)

7

What are the classic Cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's

Tremor
Rigidity
Bradykinesis

8

What is the physiology of Parkinson's

Imbalance of the neurotransmitters dopamine and acetylcholine
Postural balance,locomotion, and complex movements
Too much acetylcholine and not enough dopamine

9

Pseudoparkinsons

Reaction to medicine

10

Seizure that involves head drop, loss of posture and sudden loss of muscle tone
Myoclonic, partial or atonic

Atonic

11

Absence seizures
Atonic, petit mal or partial

Petit mal

12

Seizures that involve isolated clonic contraction or jerks less than 3-10 seconds
Atonic, petit mal or myoclonic

Myoclonic

13

Involuntary paroxysmal muscular contractions

Convulsions

14

Tonic-clonic seizure
Petit mal, atonic or grand mal

Grand mal

15

Dysrhythmic muscle contraction seizure
Myoclonic or clonic

Clonic

16

Results from abnormal electrical discharges from the cerebral neurons

Seizure

17

What percent of all epilepsy is considered primary or idiopathic

75

18

First AED used to treat seizures and today most commonly used for this condition

Phenytoin

19

Administration of phenytoin via which route is not recommended because of erratic absorption rate
Oral, IM, OR IV

IM

20

Which AEDS are classified as pregnancy category C

Diamox and lyrica

21

How does phenytoin work in the body

It helps stop the entry of sodium into the cell

22

What will nurse check before administering IV phenytoin to a patient with new onset seizures

Blood glucose levels and cardiac rhythm

23

What are 2 contraindications of phenytoin

Heart block
Bradycardia
Cautious use with patients with hypoglycemia and hypotension

24

Where is best place for IV phenytoin site

Central cath or PICC line

25

What are side effects of phenytoin

Nosebleeds and sore throats

26

What med would be ordered first for status epilepticus

Diazepam (Valium) or lorazepam

27

Which AED MAY BE taken prophylactically for migraine headaches
Valium, depakote, or Dilantin

Depakote