Flashcards in Chapter 22: Industrial Revolution Deck (41)
Which of the following events occurred first?
A) Watt invented modern steam engine.
B) Combination Acts passed.
C) Mines Act passed.
D) Great exposition held at Crystal Palace.
E) Malthus published Essay on the Principle of Population.
28. British economist Thomas Malthus argued that
A) population pressure would always force wages down to subsistence levels.
B) using young children in factories was immoral.
C) population always grew faster than the food supply.
D) the standard of living was a reflection of industrial capacity.
E) Methodism was a key factor in keeping the working class from revolting.
29. Richard Arkwright is best known for his invention of
A) the flying shuttle. D) the water frame.
B) the first modern railroad engine. E) the spinning jenny.
C) an improved steam engine.
30. In the eighteenth century, a shortage of __________ held British industry back.
A) coal B) water C) wood D) iron E) steel
31. The trains of the 1830s traveled at about ________ miles per hour.
A) sixteen B) twenty-two C) thirty-five D) fifty E) sixty
32. The tendency to hire family units in the early factories was
A) originally a government-sponsored response to urbanization.
B) usually a response to the wishes of the families.
C) replaced by the system of pauper apprenticeship.
D) outlawed by the Combination Acts.
E) highly inefficient.
33. Early textile factories in Britain worked with
A) cotton. B) flax. C) silk. D) hemp. E) wool.
34. The first modern factories arose in the
A) furnituremaking industry. D) railroad industry.
B) steel industry. E) chemical industry.
C) textile industry.
35. All of the following were consequences of revolutionary changes in the textile industry
A) cheaper cotton goods.
B) a dramatic increase in weavers' wages.
C) the movement of large numbers of agricultural workers into the industry.
D) a reduction in child labor.
E) easier access to yarn for handloom weavers.
36. All of the following facilitated the Industrial Revolution in eighteenth-century Britain
A) the existence of extensive colonial markets for manufactured goods.
B) extensive investment of foreign capital in Britain.
C) the network of canals constructed from the 1770s.
D) large deposits of iron and coal in England and Wales.
E) a prosperous and efficient agriculture.
37. The earliest steam engines were
A) used to pump water out of coal mines.
B) developed by James Watt.
C) those used to propel locomotives.
D) used as central power sources for the new factories.
E) used to run mechanical spinning jennies.
38. The difficulties faced by the continental economies in their efforts to compete with the
British included all of the following except the
A) low prices of British mass-produced goods.
B) complexity and expense of the new technology.
C) resistance of landowning elites.
D) scarcity of human capital.
E) devastation left by the Napoleonic wars.
39. Because working conditions were poor in early textile factories
A) factory owners paid people well to work in them.
B) factory owners turned to orphaned children as an important part of their
C) factory owners turned to African slaves as an important part their workforce.
D) factory owners turned to Irish immigrants as an important part their workforce.
E) factory owners turned to peasant women as an important part their workforce.
40. The major breakthrough in energy and power supplies that catalyzed the Industrial
A) Thomas Newcomen's 1705 steam engine.
B) The development of the internal combustion engine.
C) The use of running water to power cotton-spinning machinery.
D) James Watt's steam engine, developed and marketed between the 1760s and the
E) Sir Isaac Newton's discovery of the law of action and reaction.
41. James Watt solved the inefficiency problems of early steam engines by
A) increasing the size of the engines. B) adding a separate condenser.
C) using a better grade of coal for fuel. D) using accurate, precision parts.
E) uniting the combustion chamber with the piston cylinder.
42. According to the text, the world's first important railroad, completed in 1830, ran
A) Baltimore and Washington, D.C. D) Liverpool and Manchester. B) London and
Edinburgh. E) Paris and Bordeaux.
C) Moscow and St. Petersburg.
43. By reducing the cost of overland freight, the railroad
A) created national markets.
B) reduced the volume of world trade.
C) strengthened regional economies.
D) strengthened rural cottage industry.
E) drove the British merchant marine out of business.
44. The men who built the European railroads were typically
A) slaves imported from Africa. D) urban factory workers.
B) army soldiers. E) Slavs hired from eastern Europe.
C) rural laborers and peasants.
45. The Crystal Palace exhibition of 1851 commemorated the
A) industrial dominance of Britain.
B) half-century of labor reforms in Britain.
C) creation of the German Zollverein.
D) Battle of Waterloo.
E) launching of the Great Eastern.
According to the table “Per Capita Levels of Industrialization,” which countries were
closest behind Britain in industrialization in the first half of the nineteenth century?
47. William Cockerill was
A) the inventor of the spinning jenny.
B) the chief financial backer of the first commercial railway in England. C) an English
carpenter who built cotton-spinning equipment in Belgium. D) the prime minister of Britain who
opposed the Factory Act of 1833.
E) the British general at Waterloo.
48. David Ricardo formulated the
A) wage-price index. D) principle of population. B)
population-poverty index. E) iron law of wages.
C) theory of positive checks.
49. Friedrich List was an early proponent of
A) economic liberalism. D) economic nationalism.
B) working-class unions. E) state ownership of the economy. C)
factory regulation and reform.
50. The key development that allowed continental banks to shed their earlier conservative
nature was the
A) industrialization of the continent.
B) establishment of limited liability investment.
C) replacement of the old managers with young, aggressive investment bankers. D)
recruitment of bank deposits from the landed aristocracy.
E) influx of British investment.
51. ______________ managed to raise per capita industrial levels in the nineteenth
A) Only Britain D) Only Britain and Germany
B) Only Britain, France, and Germany E) All European states
C) Only Britain, Germany, and Belgium
52. In The Condition of the Working Class in England, Friedrich Engels stated that
A) the social problems in Britain were not a product of the Industrial Revolution.
B) the British middle classes were guilty of “mass murder” and “wholesale robbery.” C) in
general, the living conditions of the working class were slowly improving.
D) the class consciousness of the working class would lead to social revolution. E) the
working class was itself responsible for most of the problems its members
53. The greatest change workers faced with the shift from cottage industry to factory work
A) lower wages. D) a new tempo and discipline. B)
harder work. E) repetitive work.
C) the destruction of familyunit labor.
54. Scholarly statistical studies of the condition of members of the British working class
A) their standard of living improved steadily from the beginning of industrialization. B)
improvement did not come until the period after 1820.
C) the standard of living for British workers deteriorated throughout the nineteenth century.
D) only skilled workers enjoyed improvements in their standard of living.
E) the Industrial Revolution made little difference in the living standards of the
55. Most early industrialists drew on for labor and capital.
A) family and friends D) the investing public
B) national banks E) government investment
C) government loans