Chapter 22 - Poisoning and Drug Abuse Flashcards Preview

NAVEDTRA 14295B: HM Manual > Chapter 22 - Poisoning and Drug Abuse > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 22 - Poisoning and Drug Abuse Deck (46):
1

What is defined as a substance that, when introduced to the body, produces a harmful effect on normal body structures of functions?

Poison

2

What type of effect is produced when a poison only affects the area in which it is applied, i.e. poison ivy reaction?

Local Effect

3

What type of effect is produced when a poison affects parts of the body that are remote to the site of application or point of introduction, i.e. allergic reaction?

Remote Effect

4

What is defined as the science of poisons, their actions, their detection, and the treatment of the conditions produced by them?

Toxicology

5

What is defined as the presence of signs or symptoms associated with exposure or contact with a substance?

Poisoning

6

What are the six steps in the initial and follow-on poison management?

1. Stablization
2. Evaluation
3. Prevention or limitation of absorption
4. Elimination enhancement
5. Administration of specific antidotes
6. Continuing care and disposition

7

The presence of a _____ ________ or _________ can help establish that a poison has been involved by suggesting the class of poison(s) to which tha patient may have been exposed.

Toxic syndrome or Toxidrome

8

A patient presents with "beady eyes," sunglasses, decreased blood pressure, CNS and respiratory depression. What toxidrome does this set of symptoms suggest?

Narcotics

9

A patient presents with diarrhea, dilated pupils, goose bumps, increased heart rate, tearing, yawning, stomach cramps, and hallucinations. What toxidrome does this set of symptoms suggest?

Withdrawal

10

A patient presents with CNS excitation (confusion, in-coordination, agitation, hallucination, delirium, seizures), increased blood pressure and heart rate. What toxidrome does this set of symptoms suggest?

Sympathomimetic

11

A patient presents with dilated pupils, fever, dry skin, urinary retention, decreased bowel sounds, and increased heart rate. What toxidrome does this set of symptoms suggest?

Anticholinergic

12

A patient presents with "SLUDGE," increased salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, GI cramping, emesis and muscle weakness. what toxidrome does this set of symptoms suggest?

Cholinergic

13

What is the most common route of exposure to toxic chemicals in the home?

Ingested

14

How would you dilute a non-corrosive poison ingested by a conscious victim?

Drink 1-2 glasses of water or milk

15

What is the preffered method for emptying the contents of the stomach?

Emetic

16

What is the most commonly used substance to which an HM will have access?

15-30 cc (adult) of Ipecac Syrup (Child = 15 cc)

17

What is the last resort for inducing vomiting?

Tickle the back of the victim's throat with a finger or blunt object

18

If two doses of Ipecac syrup has failed to induce vomiting what method whould be used? This method is preffered when the victim is unconscious.

Gastric Lavage

19

What item is used to absorb substances in the stomach and prevents absorption into the body? Bowel movement is charcoal-black color.

Activated Charcoal

20

What may be used to "speed" the movement of the boud substance and minimize absorption?

Cathartic (magnesium sulfate or sorbitol)

21

What produces actual chemical burning and corrosion of the tissues of the lips, mouth, throat, and stomach?

Acids and Alkalis

22

What is the sound that may be heard from the upper airway after ingesting a corrosive substance?

Stridor

23

Never attempt to treat an acid or base ingestion by administering a neutralizing solution by mouth. Give water only, unless directed by whom?

Poison Control Center (PCC) or Medical Officer

24

If the HM is unable to reach the Poison Control Center (PCC) or a physician for specific instructions, how should the HM treat a victim who has ingested a Petroleum Distillates or Hydrocarbons product?

Give 1-2 ounces (30-60 ml) of vegetable oil

25

Most bacterial and viral food poisoning appear within how many hours of ingesting food? What is the treatment?

8 hours; Prevent dehydration

26

what is the most common route of exposure to toxic substances?

Inhalation

27

What is the most common agent of gas poisoning? Completely oderless and tasteless. Lips and skin of a victim are cherry red and death may occur within a few minutes.

Carbon Monoxide

28

The most common cause of what in Navy is the inhalation of vaporized zinc found in the galvanized covering of iron and steel?

Metal Fume Fever (MEF)

29

What is the treatment for inhalation poisoning?

Remove from environment and clothing, oxygen, and treat for shock.

30

A patient presents exhibiting signs of anaphylactic reaction to a bee or wasp sting. What is the proper treatment for the patient?

Remove jewelry, Epinephrine (0.5 ml for adult; 0.1-0.3 ml for Children, Ice cube to relieve pain, or removal of the stinger by scraping with a dull knife.

31

What is the scorpion found in Mexico and the southwest region of the United States and may cause severe effects?

Bark Scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda)

32

What is the treatment for Scorpion stings?

Ice over site, Elevate limb, tylenol, Calcium Gluconate (10 ml of 10% solution), Benzodiazepines (Valium and Midazolam)

33

What spider is identified be the red hourglass-shaped spot on its belly? Bite causes dull, numbing pain, a board-like rigidity of the abdominal muscle, dyspnea, and severe pain.

Female Black Widow Spider

34

What spider is identified by its violin-shaped marking? Bite causes a belb over the site and erythema begin to surround the belb.

Brown Recluse

35

What is seen in children who are biten by a Brown Recluse and may be fatal?

Intravascular hemolysis

36

What is the treatment for a Brown Recluse bite?

Debridement, peroxide cleansing and aluminum acetate solution soaks, and polymyxin-bacitracin-neomycin ointment.

37

What are the five venomous families of snakes?

Viperidae, Elapidae, Hydrophidae, Colubridae and Atractaspididae

38

Which venomous snake family includes rattlesnakes, moccasins, European adders, South american bushmasters? Death results mainly by coagulopathy (a blood clothing disorder) and shock.

Viperidae

39

Which venomous snake family includes cobras, kraits, mambas, and coral snakes. Death results from neurotoxic venoms.

Elapidae

40

Which venomous snake family includes sea snakes and venomous snakes from the islands of the southern Pacific Ocean? Also kills from neurotoxic venom.

Hydrophidae

41

Which venomous snake family includes most of the common nonvenomous species, as well as the boomslang, vine/twig/bird snake, Japanese yamakagashi, and the southeast asian red-necked callback?

Colubridae

42

Which of the venomous snake family inclused the burrowing asps/mole vipers, stiletto snakes, and adders?

Atractaspididae

43

What snakes are of the Viperidae family and are called "pit vipers" because of the small, deep pits between the nostrils and eyes; two long, hollow fangs; slit-like pupils of the eyes; and flat triangular heads?

Crotalids

44

Crotalids have heads that will be much wider than the body, giving the appearnace of an arrowhead. True or Flase?

True

45

What snakes are of the family Elipidae and they are somparatively thin snakes with small bands of red, black, and yellow?

Coral Snakes

46

What is the saying that only applies to NORTH American Coral Snakes?

"Red on yellow, kill a fellow; red on black, venom lack."