Flashcards in Chapter 22 - Poisoning and Drug Abuse Deck (46):
What is defined as a substance that, when introduced to the body, produces a harmful effect on normal body structures of functions?
What type of effect is produced when a poison only affects the area in which it is applied, i.e. poison ivy reaction?
What type of effect is produced when a poison affects parts of the body that are remote to the site of application or point of introduction, i.e. allergic reaction?
What is defined as the science of poisons, their actions, their detection, and the treatment of the conditions produced by them?
What is defined as the presence of signs or symptoms associated with exposure or contact with a substance?
What are the six steps in the initial and follow-on poison management?
3. Prevention or limitation of absorption
4. Elimination enhancement
5. Administration of specific antidotes
6. Continuing care and disposition
The presence of a _____ ________ or _________ can help establish that a poison has been involved by suggesting the class of poison(s) to which tha patient may have been exposed.
Toxic syndrome or Toxidrome
A patient presents with "beady eyes," sunglasses, decreased blood pressure, CNS and respiratory depression. What toxidrome does this set of symptoms suggest?
A patient presents with diarrhea, dilated pupils, goose bumps, increased heart rate, tearing, yawning, stomach cramps, and hallucinations. What toxidrome does this set of symptoms suggest?
A patient presents with CNS excitation (confusion, in-coordination, agitation, hallucination, delirium, seizures), increased blood pressure and heart rate. What toxidrome does this set of symptoms suggest?
A patient presents with dilated pupils, fever, dry skin, urinary retention, decreased bowel sounds, and increased heart rate. What toxidrome does this set of symptoms suggest?
A patient presents with "SLUDGE," increased salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, GI cramping, emesis and muscle weakness. what toxidrome does this set of symptoms suggest?
What is the most common route of exposure to toxic chemicals in the home?
How would you dilute a non-corrosive poison ingested by a conscious victim?
Drink 1-2 glasses of water or milk
What is the preffered method for emptying the contents of the stomach?
What is the most commonly used substance to which an HM will have access?
15-30 cc (adult) of Ipecac Syrup (Child = 15 cc)
What is the last resort for inducing vomiting?
Tickle the back of the victim's throat with a finger or blunt object
If two doses of Ipecac syrup has failed to induce vomiting what method whould be used? This method is preffered when the victim is unconscious.
What item is used to absorb substances in the stomach and prevents absorption into the body? Bowel movement is charcoal-black color.
What may be used to "speed" the movement of the boud substance and minimize absorption?
Cathartic (magnesium sulfate or sorbitol)
What produces actual chemical burning and corrosion of the tissues of the lips, mouth, throat, and stomach?
Acids and Alkalis
What is the sound that may be heard from the upper airway after ingesting a corrosive substance?
Never attempt to treat an acid or base ingestion by administering a neutralizing solution by mouth. Give water only, unless directed by whom?
Poison Control Center (PCC) or Medical Officer
If the HM is unable to reach the Poison Control Center (PCC) or a physician for specific instructions, how should the HM treat a victim who has ingested a Petroleum Distillates or Hydrocarbons product?
Give 1-2 ounces (30-60 ml) of vegetable oil
Most bacterial and viral food poisoning appear within how many hours of ingesting food? What is the treatment?
8 hours; Prevent dehydration
what is the most common route of exposure to toxic substances?
What is the most common agent of gas poisoning? Completely oderless and tasteless. Lips and skin of a victim are cherry red and death may occur within a few minutes.
The most common cause of what in Navy is the inhalation of vaporized zinc found in the galvanized covering of iron and steel?
Metal Fume Fever (MEF)
What is the treatment for inhalation poisoning?
Remove from environment and clothing, oxygen, and treat for shock.
A patient presents exhibiting signs of anaphylactic reaction to a bee or wasp sting. What is the proper treatment for the patient?
Remove jewelry, Epinephrine (0.5 ml for adult; 0.1-0.3 ml for Children, Ice cube to relieve pain, or removal of the stinger by scraping with a dull knife.
What is the scorpion found in Mexico and the southwest region of the United States and may cause severe effects?
Bark Scorpion (Centruroides exilicauda)
What is the treatment for Scorpion stings?
Ice over site, Elevate limb, tylenol, Calcium Gluconate (10 ml of 10% solution), Benzodiazepines (Valium and Midazolam)
What spider is identified be the red hourglass-shaped spot on its belly? Bite causes dull, numbing pain, a board-like rigidity of the abdominal muscle, dyspnea, and severe pain.
Female Black Widow Spider
What spider is identified by its violin-shaped marking? Bite causes a belb over the site and erythema begin to surround the belb.
What is seen in children who are biten by a Brown Recluse and may be fatal?
What is the treatment for a Brown Recluse bite?
Debridement, peroxide cleansing and aluminum acetate solution soaks, and polymyxin-bacitracin-neomycin ointment.
What are the five venomous families of snakes?
Viperidae, Elapidae, Hydrophidae, Colubridae and Atractaspididae
Which venomous snake family includes rattlesnakes, moccasins, European adders, South american bushmasters? Death results mainly by coagulopathy (a blood clothing disorder) and shock.
Which venomous snake family includes cobras, kraits, mambas, and coral snakes. Death results from neurotoxic venoms.
Which venomous snake family includes sea snakes and venomous snakes from the islands of the southern Pacific Ocean? Also kills from neurotoxic venom.
Which venomous snake family includes most of the common nonvenomous species, as well as the boomslang, vine/twig/bird snake, Japanese yamakagashi, and the southeast asian red-necked callback?
Which of the venomous snake family inclused the burrowing asps/mole vipers, stiletto snakes, and adders?
What snakes are of the Viperidae family and are called "pit vipers" because of the small, deep pits between the nostrils and eyes; two long, hollow fangs; slit-like pupils of the eyes; and flat triangular heads?
Crotalids have heads that will be much wider than the body, giving the appearnace of an arrowhead. True or Flase?
What snakes are of the family Elipidae and they are somparatively thin snakes with small bands of red, black, and yellow?