Chapter 2.2 (Principles and Theories of Learning and Performance) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2.2 (Principles and Theories of Learning and Performance) Deck (36):
1

Define Learning

A permanent change in behaviour as a result of practice

2

Define Performance

A temporary occurrence that can change from time to time because of many external and internal influences

3

Define Cognitive Stage of Learning

The first stage of learning used by a novice. Understanding and sub-routines are explored by trail and error

4

Define Associative Stage of Learning

The second stage of learning as motor programmes are developed and performance is smoother

5

Define Autonomous Stage of Learning

The final stage of learning used by an expert when movement is specific and detailed

6

Define Feedback

Information to aid error correction

7

Define Positive Feedback

Encouragement

8

Define Negative Feedback

Error correction

9

Define Extrinsic Feedback

From an outside source

10

Define Intrinsic Feedback

From within

11

Define Knowledge of Results

Concerns the outcome

12

Define Knowledge of Performance

About technique

13

Define Plateau

A period of no improvement in performance

14

Define Drive Reduction

An end-of-task period when performance may get worse

15

What are the causes of a plateau (MBCLTF)

Motivation
Boredom
Coach
Limit of ability
Targets too low
Fatigue

16

Define Visual Guidance

Guidance that can be seen, a demonstration

17

Define Verbal Guidance

An explanation

18

Define Manual Guidance

Physical support

19

Define Mechanical Guidance

An artificial aid

20

Define Operant Conditioning

The use of reinforcement to ensure that correct responses are repeated

21

Define Behaviourist Theory

This attempts to explain how actions can be linked to stimuli

22

Define Satisfier

An action that promotes a pleasant feeling so that responses are repeated

23

Define Annoyer

An action that creates unease to promote the avoidance of incorrect responses

24

Define Positive Reinforcement

A pleasant stimulus after the correct response

25

Define Negative Reinforcement

Taking away an unpleasant stimulus after the correct response

26

Define Punishment

An unpleasant stimulus to prevent incorrect actions recurring

27

Define Attention

Making the demonstration attractive to the performer

28

Define Retention

Remembering the demonstration and being able to recall it

29

Define Motor Production

Having the mental and physical ability to do the task

30

Define Motivation

Having the drive to do the task

31

Define Social Development

Learning by association with others

32

Define Inter-psychological Learning

Learning from others externally

33

Define Intra-psychological Learning

Learning using others or an MKO to develop knowledge

34

Define Constructivism

Building up learning in stages, based on the current level of performance

35

Define Zone of Optimal Performance

The next stage of learning based on the performer's needs, expectations and current level of performance

36

Define Insight Learning

Using experience and understanding to solve problems relating to the whole skill