Chapter 23 and 24 Cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 23 and 24 Cancer Deck (50):
1

Benign tumor cells

These cells do not invade, the don’t migrate, and have orderly growth

2

tumor angiogenesis factor (TAF)

When tumor is 1 cm
triggers capillaries and other blood vessels in the area to grow new branches into the tumor

3

Bloodborne metastasis

most common cause of cancer spread

4

Gx

grade can not be determined

5

G1

tumor cells are well differentiated and closely resemble the normal cells from which they arose

6

G2

tumor cells are moderately differentiated- they still retain some of the characteristics of normal cells

7

G3

tumor cells are poorly differentiated and retain no normal cell characteristics

8

Ploidy

the description of cancer cells by chromosome number and appearance. Normal human cells have 46

9

TNM system

Tumor, node, metastasis system describes the anatomic extent of cancers
not useful for leukemia or lymphomas.

10

Tx

Primary tumor cannot be assessed

11

T0

no evidence of primary tumor

12

Tis

carcinoma in situ (in its natural or original place)

13

Nx

regional lymph nodes cannot be assessed

14

N0

no regional lymph node metastasis

15

M0

no distant metastasis

16

M1

distant metastasis

17

Mitotic index

the percentage of actively dividing cells within a tumor
85%- fast growing tumor

18

Viral carcinogens examples

Eptein-Barr virus, hep B and hep C, HPV

19

Biggest CA risk factor

age (>60)

20

7 warning signs of CA
CAUTION

C- changes in bowel or bladder habits
A- A sore throat that does not heal
U- Unusual bleeding or discharge
T- Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere
I- Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
O- Obvious change in a wart or mole
N- Nagging cough or hoarseness

21

Cancer that invades the bone marrow causes what?

anemia, thrombocytopenia, and reduce production of healthy WBC’s

22

Cancer that spreads to the liver causes what?

malnutrition and death

23

Radiation tx

destroys cancer cells with minimal exposure to normal cells
local treatment

24

Radiation dose

amount of radiation absorbed by the tissue
always less than exposure

25

Teletherapy

radiation source is external to the PT
PT is not radioactive

26

Brachytherapy

radiation in direct, continuous contact with the tumor
the patient emits radiation and is hazardous to others for 48 hours after

27

Chemotherapy

major tx
has some selectivity for killing CA cells over normal cells

28

Types of normal cells effected by chemotherapy

those that divide rapidly such as skin, hair, intestinal tissues, spermatocytes, and blood forming cells

29

Nadir

the time when bone marrow activity and WBC counts are at their lowest level after chemo

30

Frequency of chemotherapy administration

every 3-4 weeks
on average 4-12 times

31

Extravasation

the major complication of IV infusion
drug leaks into the surrounding tissues
can cause severe tissue damage
Surgery may be needed

32

Side effects of chemo

anemia
thrombocytopenia
neutropenia
mucositis
changes in cognitive function
N/V
peripheral neuropathy

33

Neutropenia

greatly increases risk for infection and can cause death

34

Neutropenia tx

BMR's (biologic response modifier) to stimulate bone marrow production

35

BMR's ex

neupogen, procrit/epogen, neumega

36

Thrombocytopenia

increases risk for bleeding
<20K platelets may have spontaneous bleeding and need a transfusion

37

Mucositis

open sores on mucous membrane
especially stomatitis
PT should drink 3L of H2O daily

38

Hormonal manipulation

aimed at decreasing hormones to slow CA growth

39

Tamoxifen

estrogen antagonist-agonist
used to tx breast CA
binds to estrogen so it is unavailable for cells

40

Tamoxifen se

hot flashes and wt gain
increased hair growth
decreased breast tissue or gynnecomastia in men
sexual disfunction
increased risk of DVT

41

Photodynamic therapy

Selective destruction of cancer cells through a chemical reaction triggered by different types of laser light
Dye is administered IV and collects in CA cells in 2-3 days

42

Photodynamic therapy se

photosensitive for 12 weeks (sunblock will not prevent sunburn)
eye/skin pain

43

Oncologic Emergencies

sepsis
disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
SIADH
spinal cord compression
hypercalcemia
superior vena cava syndrome

44

disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

often caused by sepsis
seen in leukemia
clotting followed by bleeding

45

disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) sx

pain, strokelike symptoms, dyspnea, tachycardia, oilguria, and tissue death

46

SIADH sx and tx

hyponatremia, weakness, muscle cramps, fatigue, loss of appetite, seizures, coma
tx: Fluid restrictions

47

Hypercalcemia

usually seen in bone CA

48

Hypercalcemia sx and tx

Fatigue, N/V, constipation, polyuria, etc
tx: Increase hydration, calcitonin

49

Superior vena cava syndrome

Occurs from compression of the SVC

50

Superior vena cava syndrome sx

edema of the face especially around the eyes upon awakening, tightness of the shirt collar, edema in the arms and hands, dyspnea, erythema of the upper body, nose bleeds, ALOC