Flashcards in Chapter 24: Key Trends in Post-Cold War Europe Deck (20)
Cold War Era
The Cold War era was dominated by the rivalry between US and Soviet Union. Also, there was division in Europe, as Western Europe was prosperous and capitalistic, Eastern Europe was poor, and Communist.
Key Trends from the Post-Cold War Era
1. Re-emergence of Russia as a major power.
2. Economic integration of Europe in the European Union.
3. Transformation of women's lives with gender equality.
4. Digital technology
5. Mass immigration of people in Europe.
The new president of Russia. Tried new economic policies that would put Russia on a new market economy and pluralistic political system. Used economic "shock therapy," however it failed and created inflation and corruption, which allowed a small group of oligarchs to gain immense wealth and power.
Yeltson also faced troubles from the Chechnyas.
Putin came to power after Yeltson unexpectedly resigned. He used new economic policies that included primarily free markets, and strengthened central government power, as well as limit media critics.
He began to reassert Russia into domestic and international politics, as well as suppress the Chechnyas that Yeltson didn't. Putin revived Russia's long tradition of authoritarian government.
European Coal and Steel Community
A trade union between France, West Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy, and the Netherlands to eliminate tariffs on coal and steel.
European Economic Community (Common Market)
Encouraged free movement of products by eliminating tariffs on all goods. It proved to be a huge success, as France, Luxembourg, West Germany, Italy, Netherlands, and Belgium experienced economic miracles.
Soon Great Britain, Denmark, and Ireland joined in 1973.
Changed the ECC to the European Union (EU). This stated that the included nations would establish a common currency, have common citizenship to the EU, set uniform production standards, and standard taxes.
Changes to Patterns in Marriage and Childrearing
After the war, women began to reassume their traditional roles as wives and mothers, especially with the post-war "baby boom." Women also began to marry earlier, and a growing demand for labor allowed many young married women to enter the work force.
The new shift to white-collar industries in education, government, and healthcare opened more job opportunities for women. However, as more women entered the work force, they continually faced discrimination in salary and working conditions.
Simone de Beauvoir
First European women to challenge the status quo, in her book "The Second Sex," stating that the only way for women to achieve genuine autonomy was to escape from their traditional inferior roles. This became a cornerstone of feminist theory.
Wrote the "Feminist Mystique," which stated women faced discrimination that denied them equality to men. This became an international best seller that made Friedan a leading force in the feminist movement, and founded NOW.
Millicent Fawcett and Emmeline Pankhurst
19th and 20th century feminists that tried to get women's suffrage in Britain, which they received in 1918.
The Feminist Movement
Women did get the right to vote (mainly) by the end of WWII. However, the wage gap still existed in this time.
However, after fighting, women received pretty equal pay for equal work, affordable day care, and maternity leave.
The Women's movement lead to an increase in other minority groups pursuing their rights: gays, lesbians, and the disabled.
The Green Party
West German women joined the Green party that fought for a variety of new issues. Lead by Kelly, the green party advocated against rapid consumerism, for environmental rights, human liberties, defended state-welfare programs, and extending rights to gays, lesbians, etc.
The Baby Bust
After the baby boom following WWII, the birth rates began to decline into the baby bust. Many factors to the baby bust include women getting married early then leaving to the labor force, and successful, educated women often limited children to one.
Long term consequences of the baby bust include rising health care costs, more old people retiring, shrinking labor force, and rising social security taxes.
Manual laborers from former British, French, Dutch, and Portuguese colonies entering Europe as "guest workers," due to the severe shortage of labor. These people were unskilled, but eager to start new lives.
Legal and Illegal Immigration
Since the fall of Communism, there is an increase of legal and illegal immigrants looking to find opportunity and safety. However, native residents fear the influx of immigrants will lead to undermining national unity and the loss of jobs to foreigners.
In the 21st century, many Muslims are entering Europe, and at the end of 2015, Europe saw an influx of Syrian refugees.
In WWII, many European countries combined science and technology to create new weapons, such as the radar, atomic bomb, and jet aircraft. Big Science is the unprecedented marriage of theoretical science and complex engineering sponsored by governments.
During the cold war, big science brought up new inventions such as rockets, nuclear submarines, and spy satellites.
The space race between the Soviet Union and the United States major example of big science. While the Soviets released the Sputnik, the US were motivated to take up the Apollo project and place a man on the moon.
Characterized mainly by the television and computer. The television played a major role in shaping public attitudes to politics, culture, entertainment, national events, etc.
The computer, as it got cheaper and smaller, greatly changed the pace and pattern of work and leisure.