Chapter 24 The Lymphatic System and Immunity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 24 The Lymphatic System and Immunity Deck (68)
1

Defenses present at birth

Innate

2

_______ does not involve specific recognition of a microbe and acts against all microbes int he same way

Innate

3

Does innate immunity have a memory component

no

4

What are some of the components of innate immuiity

First line of defense: physical and chemical barriers of the skin and mucose mb
Second line of defense: antimicrobial substance, phagocytes, natural killer cells, inflammation and fever

5

__________________ refers to defenses that involve specific recognition of a microbe once it has breached the innate immunity defenses

Adaptive immunity

6

What are some of the general characteristics of adaptive immunity

Slower, specific & has a memory
Lymphocytes: T-cells & B-cells

7

lymphatic system - what tissue / organs does it consist of

consists of lymph, lymphatic vessels and a number of structures and organs containing lymphatic tissue and red bone marrow

8

What are the 3 primary functions of the Lymphatic system

Draining excess interstitial fluid from tissue and blood; Transporting dietary lipids and lipid solube vitamins (A, D, E and K) absorbed in the intestines; carrying out immune responses

9

how does the fluid move through the lymphatic system

Pressure will force fluid in: Skeletal muscle pump Respiratory pump
Valves

10

Located at intervals along lymphatic vessels are ___________ masses of B cells and T cells that are surrounded by a capsule

lymph nodes

11

How much fluid per day does the lymphatic system filter per day

20L / day

12

Each day about _______ liters of fluid and solutes are drained and returned into the blood by lymph circulation

3

13

______________ cells in the lymph nodes and Spleen phagocytize invading cells

Macrophage

14

_________________ in the lymph nodes and spleen produce antibodies that mark and desroy foreign antigens and cells

B lymphocyte

15

What is unique about the capillary's walls

their structure permits fluid from the surrounding space to flow into capillary but not out of it

16

When there is edema in the tissues, what do the anchoring filaments do to find homeostasis in the system

The anchoring filaments pull the endothelial cells slightly apart allowing more fluid to flow into the lymphatic capillary

17

_____________ drains the upper right side of the body

Right lymphatic duct

18

How does lymph return to the blood

through the lymphatic ducts

19

Where do the lymphatic ducts drain into

into the right and left subclavian veins

20

Where do - stem cells divide & develop into mature B & T-cells

Red bone marrow & thymus

21

Sites where most immune responses occur

Lymph nodes, spleen & lymphatic nodules

22

Location of the Thymus

Posterior to sternum, medial to lungs & superior to heart

23

Immature T cells migrate from the red bone marrow to the _________ where they multiply and begin to mature

thymus

24

where are there a higher concentration of lymph nodes

Concentrated near mammary glands, axilla & groin

25

What do lymph nodes contain

Contain mature B-cells, T-cells dendritic cells and macrophages

26

What is the purpose of lymph nodes

Filter lymph, trap foreign substances
Macrophages & lymphocytes destroy most foreign substances

27

What does the Spleen contain

Contains blood filled venous sinuses and RBCs, macrophages, lymphocytes plasma cells & granular leukocytes

28

What are some of the functions of the spleen?

Removal by macrophages of worn or defective blood cells & platelets; Storage of platelets; production of red blood cells during fetal life

29

Interferons

Interfere with viral reproduction in a cell
produced by lymphocytes, macrophages and fibroblasts when they are infected by a virus. this message is send to uninfected neighboring cells where they stimulate synthesis of proteins which interfere with viral replication

30

Complement System

Enhance other immune actions - allergic and inflammatory reactions
Break cell membranes - tear holes in plasma mb causing cytolysis
chemotaxis - attracting phagocytes
Opsonization - Tag microbial cells for destruction

31

Transferrin

bind iron to inhibit growth of certain bacteria by reducing the mount of available iron

32

Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs)

lyse microbes
attract dendritic cells and mast cells

33

Which type of immune cells phagocytoze

neutrophils, macrophages and natural killer cells

34

Natural Killer (NK) Cells

Destroy microbes & tumor cells
Present in lymph nodes & red bone marrow

35

When there is tissue damage, what is the first response of the body

mast cells, basophils & platelets release histamine. Which causes increased permeability & vasodilation in blood vessels. T

36

Once mast cells, basophils and platelets have released histamine in response to tissue damage, what is the next step in tissue repair

clotting proteins get into the tissue. Fibrinogen isolates the bacteria behind the clot - attempt to isolate pathogenic factors

37

once the fibinogen has gone to work setting the clot, what is the next step in tissue repain

Phagocytes attracted to site
Neutrophils & macrophages eat foreign particles then they die

38

After the clean up crew of neutrophils and macrophages have died, what is the next step in tissue repair

pus forms from dead cells and damaged tissue forms. The pus moves to body surface or into cavity & is cleared

39

fever

An abnormally high body temperature that occurs because the hypothalamus thermostat is reset

40

Interleukin-1

released from macrophages
fever causing substance

41

Lymph from the right side of the upper body, how does it get back into the blood system?

R. lymphatic duct then into the Right subclavian vein

42

Lymph from the left side of the upper body, how does it get back into the blood system?

into the thoracic duct then into the L subclavian vein

43

What are the primary lymphatic organs

Thymus and Red bone marrow

44

List the secondary lymphatic organs

lymph nodes, splee and lymphatic nodules

45

What is happening in the thymus

T cells divide and mature, self reactive cells are removed

46

What happens in the lymph nodes

Filter lymph, trap foreign substances: macrophages and lymphocytes destroy most foreign substances

47

What is contained in the spleen

blood filled venous sinues and RBC, macrophages, lymphocytes plasma cells and granular leukocytes

48

What kind of action is happening in the spleen

destruction of worn out or defective blood cells and platelets, stores platelets

49

Interferons

interfere with viral reproduction in a cell

50

Compliment system

enhanse other immune responses, break cell mb, attract phagocytes, tag microbial cells for destruction

51

Transferrins

bind iron and starve bacteria

52

antimicrobial peptides

lyse microbes

53

____________ involves cell or antibody directed against a particular antigen

adaptive immunity

54

The maturation of B cells occur where?

Bone marrow

55

The maturation of T cells occur where?

Thymus

56

what does B cells produce?

antibodies

57

MHC

major histocompatability complex

58

What does MHC do

self antigens on cell surface,

59

most abundant antibody found in the blood, protects against bacteria and viruses by enhancing phagocytosis, neutralizing toxins and triggering the compliment system. Only class of antibody to cross the placenta

IgG

60

IgG

most abundant antibody found in the blood, protects against bacteria and viruses by enhancing phagocytosis, neutralizing toxins and triggering the compliment system. Only class of antibody to cross the placenta

61

IgA

found in sweat, tears, saliva, breast milk and GI secretions. provides localized protection of mucus membranes

62

found in sweat, tears, saliva, breast milk and GI secretions. provides localized protection of mucus membranes

IgA

63

IgM

secreted by plasma cells after initial exposure to any antigen. Activates complement and causes agglutination and lysis of microbes.

64

secreted by plasma cells after initial exposure to any antigen. Activates complement and causes agglutination and lysis of microbes.

IgM

65

IgD

surfaces of B cells as antigen receptors, involved in activation of B cells

66

surfaces of B cells as antigen receptors, involved in activation of B cells

IgD

67

IgE

located on mast cells and basophils. Allergic responses and hypersensitivity reactions. Protection from parasitic worms

68

located on mast cells and basophils. Allergic responses and hypersensitivity reactions. Protection from parasitic worms

IgE