[Chapter 25] Plants and Animals - Common Challenges Part I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in [Chapter 25] Plants and Animals - Common Challenges Part I Deck (24)

Define growth

For any multicelled species, it refers to an increase in the number, size, and volume of cells, measured in quantitative terms


Define development

Series of stages in which specialized tissues, organs, and organ systems form in heritable patterns, measured in qualitative terms


Plant cells must be bathed in a fluid. Why?

It delivers nutrients and carries away metabolic wastes.


Define extracellular fluid

ECF is the body fluid not inside cells, it acts as an internal environment. changes in its composition and volume affect cell activities. the type and number of ions must be kept at concentrations compatible with metabolism. *the body requires a stable fluid environment for its cells*


List basic body functions

acquiring materials and distributing then to cells, getting rid of wastes, protecting cells and tissues, reproducing, and often nurturing offspring


All multicelled species respond, structurally and functionally, to this common challenge

Quickly move gaseous molecules to and from individual cells


Define diffusion

When ions or molecules of a substance are concentrated in one place, they tend to move to a place where they are not as concentrated


How do plants and animals diffuse gas?

In directions that are most suitable for metabolism and cell survival


What happens is a metabolic reactions?

reactants diffusing through the body or to/from the surface, when this takes too long, reactions slow or stop.


Explain internal transport in large bodies

as cells and multicelled organisms grow, their volume increases in three dimensions while surface area only increases in two dimensions, thus surface area to volume ratio decreases and diffusion alone is not able to move materials through it fast enough. larger bodies have systems of rapid internal transport that service individual cells that are too far from the exchange point with the environment (ex: the mouth that takes in oxygen in humans)


What kind of transport system do plants and animals have?

most have vascular tissues, or system of tubes through which substances move to and from cells. transports diverse substances like water, nutrients, hormones, and infection/injury fighting substances (animals - white blood cells, plants - chemicals)


What do plants and animals continually gain and lose?

water and solutes


What is active transport?

Protein pumps one specific solute from a region of low concentration to one of higher concentration


What is a crucial similarity between plants and animals?

dependence on communication between cells


Define habitat

a place where individuals of a species typically live


Each cell and muticelled body is interconnected through their requirement/contributions to what?

gas exchange, nutrition, internal transport, stability in internal environment, and defense


Define Interstitial fluid

an extracellular fluid that fills spaces between cells and tissues. cells and blood exchange solutes with it


Besides interstitial fluid, what makes up extracellular fluid?

plasma, the fluid portion of blood.


Define sensory receptors

cells or cell parts that detect stimuli, which are specific forms of energy


Dine integrator

a central command post that receives and processes information about stimuli


Define effectors

muscles, glands, or both receives signals from the integrator to carry out suitable responses to the stimulation [check diagram on page 416]


Define feedback mechanisms

homeostatic controls that help maintain physical and chemical aspects of the body's internal environment


Give an example of a positive feedback mechanism

During childbirth, a fetus puts pressure on the wall of the uterus and the pressure induces the production and secretion of oxytocin that make muscle cells in the wall contract to exert pressure on the fetus, which repeats until the fetus leaves the mother's body


Give an example of a negative feedback mechanism

receptors that monitor oxygen levels signal to the brain when the concentration of oxygen in the blood declines and calls for faster, deeper breathing