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Flashcards in Chapter 26 Deck (81):
1

Causes of postwar European tensions:

1. Stalin's resentment against the West; examples: reparations, aid, atomic bomb
2. The West's fears of the Soviets' commitment to communist expansion and spread of revolution
3. Political maneuvering at Yalta (Poland, Pacific Theatre, Eastern Europe) and Potsdam (surrender, postwar partition Vietnam at 17th parallel, reparations, Germany)

2

May, 1946; Churchill delivers his __________ speech

"Iron Curtain"

3

Where did Churchill deliver his "Iron Curtain" speech?

Fulton, Missouri

4

"Iron Curtain"
Acknowledged that Eastern Europe was within the soviet ___________

Sphere of influence

5

Who devised the Containment policy?

George Kennan

6

What did the containment policy state?

US must confront the USSR to neutralize their influence

7

What did the Truman Doctrine state?

Commitment of economic, financial, and (if necessary) military aid to countries threaded by "armed minorities or outside pressure"

8

Chief architects of the Truman Doctrine:

Truman
Sec. Of state George Marshall

9

1947; Truman Doctrine applies successfully in __________ and _________

Greece and Turkey

10

Truman Doctrine
How much money was allocated?

$400 Million

11

What did the Truman Doctrine reflect?

Reflected the "domino theory"

12

1947; What did the U.S. Marshall Plan provide?

Provided $13 Billion in aid to Europe

13

How many nations were helped in the US Marshall Plan?
Who rejected?

16 nations helped
USSR and its satellites rejected the help

14

From when to when did the airlift last?

June 27, 1948- May 12, 1948

14

Who went against who in the shield and sword concept?

NATO (1949) v. WARSAW PACT (1955)

15

1947;What does the National Security act create?

The National Security Council, the Defense Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

16

1950; What does the NSC-68 report make?
What did it increase?

Makes recommendations to improve American capabilities to deter Russian Aggression around the world.
Defense budge Increased greatly cover $40 B per year

17

1949; Chinese communists led by __________ defeat the nationalists under __________

Mao Zedong
Jiang Jeishi

18

Nationalists flee to the island of _________

Taiwan

19

1950; China signs a treaty with __________

The Soviet Union

20

What was an immediate postwar economic problem?

Inflation

21

How many workers strike in 1946?

5 million

22

Economy recovered by _____

1947

23

African Americans continued to struggle for greater ___________status

Socioeconomic and political status

24

Percent of black voters rose from __-__ in the south during the 40's

2%-12%

25

What was the breakthrough for African Americans?

Truman integrated the armed services in 1948

26

Who was the first African American in modern era?

Jackie Robinson

27

Who won the Noble Peace Prize and was involved with the UN and civil rights?

Ralph Bunche

28

What did the fair deal include?

An increased minimum wage, extended social security benefits and federal funds for housing

29

Truman battled a conservative Republican congress known as _________

"Do nothing" congress

30

What was the controversial law of the fair deal and why was it controversial?

Taft-Harley Act
It passed over Truman's veto

31

Fair deal was largely a failure:

1. No national health care program
2. Little education reform
3. Civil rights legislation put off

32

What was the greatest political comeback?

1948 presidential election

33

What was the 1948 presidential election campaign slogan for the republicans?

"To Err is Truman"

34

Second _________ caused mass hysteria

"Red Scare"

35

Truman authorized a loyalty review board; suspected communist were persecuted under _________

The Smith Act

36

__________ targeted subversives in Hollywood

HUAC

37

What was the penalty for subversives targeted?

Black-listing

38

Rosenberg trial focused on spies and gave rise to ____________

McCarthyism

39

After WWII Korea was divided at __________

The 38th parallel

40

Was North Korea and South Korea a communist or a republic?

North Korea- communist
South Korea- republic

41

Who was the leader of North Korea?

Kim II Sung

42

Who was the leader of South Korea?

Syngman Rhee

43

June, 1950; N. Korean forces invade S. Korea; __________ Votes to send a multinational force to Korea

UN Sec. Council

44

Who was the commander of Korean War?

Gen. Douglas MacArthur

45

Sept.; _________ landing forces N. Korean retreat

Inchon

46

What years did the Korean wars go through?

1950-1953

47

African Americans continued to struggle for greater ___________status

Socioeconomic and political status

48

Percent of black voters rose from __-__ in the south during the 40's

2%-12%

49

What was the breakthrough for African Americans?

Truman integrated the armed services in 1948

50

Who was the first African American in modern era?

Jackie Robinson

51

Who won the Noble Peace Prize and was involved with the UN and civil rights?

Ralph Bunche

52

What did the fair deal include?

An increased minimum wage, extended social security benefits and federal funds for housing

53

Truman battled a conservative Republican congress known as _________

"Do nothing" congress

54

What was the controversial law of the fair deal and why was it controversial?

Taft-Harley Act
It passed over Truman's veto

55

Fair deal was largely a failure:

1. No national health care program
2. Little education reform
3. Civil rights legislation put off

56

What was the greatest political comeback?

1948 presidential election

57

What was the 1948 presidential election campaign slogan for the republicans?

"To Err is Truman"

58

Second _________ caused mass hysteria

"Red Scare"

59

Truman authorized a loyalty review board; suspected communist were persecuted under _________

The Smith Act

60

__________ targeted subversives in Hollywood

HUAC

61

What was the penalty for subversives targeted?

Black-listing

62

Rosenberg trial focused on spies and gave rise to ____________

McCarthyism

63

After WWII Korea was divided at __________

The 38th parallel

64

Was North Korea and South Korea a communist or a republic?

North Korea- communist
South Korea- republic

65

Who was the leader of North Korea?

Kim II Sung

66

Who was the leader of South Korea?

Syngman Rhee

67

June, 1950; N. Korean forces invade S. Korea; __________ Votes to send a multinational force to Korea

UN Sec. Council

68

Sept..; ________ landing forces N. Korean retreat

Inchon

69

Who was the commander of the UN during Korean War

Gen. Douglas MacArthur

70

Nov; Chinese forces attack UN army across the _________

Yalu River

71

1951; Pres. Truman fires _________

MacArthur

72

1953; armistice line established near the original border which was ___________

38th parallel

73

The Korean War
War never declared, it was a ____________

"Police action"

74

What were total American casualties in Korean War
How many Koreans

155,000 casualties (54,000 dead)
Over 2 million Koreans

75

US maintains approx _________ troops in South Korea

35,000

76

____________ was elected in 1952

Dwight Eisenhower (Rep.)

77

What was Dwight Eisenhower slogan?

"K1, C2 Formula"

78

Who did Dwight Eisenhower best in the election

Adlai Stevenson

79

What did Dwight Eisenhower promise?

To visit troops in Korea and he did

80

Effects of the Cold War:

1. Greater emphasis on foreign policy; fundamentally altered America's world outlook
2. Defense spending changed the American economy ("military industrial complex")
3. Nuclear arms race consumed vast resources
4. Americans had to accept limitation of power