Chapter 26 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 26 Deck (67):
1

The urinary system consists of

2 kidneys, 2 ureters, single urinary bladder, single urethra

2

How are urinary infections prevented?

valves prevent backflow into kidneys, acidity of urine, flushing action of urine

3

The female reproductive system consists of

2 ovaries, 2 uterine (fallopian) tubes, the uterus (including cervix), vagina, and external genitals (vulva)

4

What do the ovaries produce

female sex hormones and ova (eggs)

5

What makes up the female external genitals

clitoris, labia, and glands

6

The male reproductive system consists of

Two testes, system of ducts, epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra, accessory glands, penis

7

Produces male sex hormones and sperm

testes

8

What path do sperm cells take to exit the body

epididymis to ductus (vas) deferens, through the ejaculatory duct then urethra

9

What are the portals of entry for microbes into the female and male reproductive systems

bladder, urethra, ureters, kidneys

10

Is normal urine sterile?

yes

11

Which has fewer microbrial contaminants, urine directly from the urinary bladder or voided urine

urine directly from the urinary bladder

12

What is the predominant bacteria in the vagina

lactobacilli

13

What does lactobacilli produce in the vagina that maintains the acidic pH and inhibits microbe growth

lactic acid

14

What promotes the growth of lactobacilli and how?

estrogen; enhancing the production of glycogen by vaginal epithelial cells

15

What yeastlike fungus is a part of the vagina's normal microbiota?

Candida albicans

16

Are there other bacteria such as streptococci, various anarobes, or gram-negatives found in the vagina?

Yes

17

How can normal urine become contaminated?

from the microbiota of the skin near the end of its passage through the urethra

18

___ ____ and the upper ____ ____ are sterile

Urinary bladder, upper urinary tract

19

Is the male urethra usually sterile or unsterile?

sterile

20

Inflammation of the urethra

urethritis

21

infection of the urinary bladder

cystitis

22

Infection of the ureters

ureteritis

23

Inflammation of one or both kidneys

pyelonephritis

24

Primarily a disease of domestic or wild animals, but can be passed to humans and may cause severe kidney or liver disease

leptospirosis

25

Of the 7 million urinary tract infections annually, most are due to what bacteria?

E. coli

26

Caused by E. coli or S. saprophyticus
Symptoms: dysuria and pyuria
8x's more common in women
Diagnosis: Urine sample w/ >100 CFU/ml and positive leukocyte esterase test
Treatment: trimethoprim-sulfamethexazole

Cystitis

27

Caused by E. coli (75% of cases)
Symptoms: fever and flank (back pain)
Diagnosis: Urine sample w/ >10,000 CFU/ml and positive leukocyte esterase test
Results in bacteremia
Chronic conditions causes scar tissue to form in kidney and impairs their function
Treatment: Cephalosporin

Pyelonephritis

28

Caused by Leptospira interrogans
Has characteristic shape (fine spiral), stains poorly, obligate aerobe
Transmission: contact with urine contaminated water, soil, or animal tissue
Pathogen enters through skin/mucous membrane or ingested through mucosa
Symptoms: headaches, muscular aches, chills, fever
Kidney failure most common cause of death
Diagnosis: rapid serological test
Treatment: doxycycline

Leptospirosis

29

A 20-year-old woman feels a stinging sensation when urinating and feels an urgent need to urinate, even if very little urine is excreted. Lactose-fermenting, gram-negative rods are cultured from her urine.
Can you identify infections that could cause these symptoms?

Cystitis

30

What does STD stand for

sexually transmitted diseases

31

What does STI stand for

sexually transmitted infections

32

STD's can be treated with _____ and prevented by using _____

antibiotics, condoms

33

Cause: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gram-negative diplococcus; attaches to the epithelial mucosa by the fimbriae and invades the spaces between the columnar epithelial cells
Symptoms: Men: painful urination and discharge of pus; epididymitis; women: fewer symptoms; pelvic inflammatory disease
Diagnosis: In men, gonococci stained smear of pus; in women, culture from cervix is grown on media, ELISA test
Treatment: cephalosporins (cetriaxone or cefixime)

Gonorrhea

34

infant blindness due to a gonorrheal infection of the eyes

Ophthalmia neonatorum

35

If gonorrhea is untreated, what may happen?

may disseminate and become systemic Endocarditis
Meningitis, or Arthritis

36

Any inflammation of the urethra not caused by Neisseria gonorrhaeae with symptoms of painful urination and watery discharge

Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) a.k.a nonspecific urethritis (NSU)

37

The most common pathogen associated with NGU

Chlamydia trachomatis

38

Other than C. trachomatis, what other bacteria causes NGU?

Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis

39

How is NGU diagnosed?

culture or PCR

40

How is NGU treated?

doxycycline and azithromycin

41

Collective term for any extensive bacterial infection of the female pelvic organs, particularly the uterus, cervix, uterine tubes, or ovaries

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

42

Polymicrobial infection (number of different pathogens may be cause)
Cause: N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, normally
Symptoms: Chronic abdominal pain
Diagnosis: signs and symptoms w/ lab indications of gonorrheal or chlamydial infection of cervix
May result in scarring can cause infertility or ectopic pregnancy
Treatment: doxycycline and cefoxitin

PID

43

Cause: Treponema pallidum, Gram-negative spirochete
Produces lipoproteins that induce inflammatory immune response

syphilis

44

How is syphillis diagnosed?

Direct fluorescent-antibody test (DFA-TP) with monoclonal antibodies
Nontreponemal serological tests
Slide agglutination VDRL test
Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test
Treponemal-type serological tests
Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)
Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test
(FTA-ABS)

45

What is syphilis treated with

benzathine penicillin

46

What happens in the primary stage of syphilis?

Chancre at the site of infection about 3 weeks after exposure
Painless and highly infectious
Disappears after 2 weeks

47

What happens in the secondary stage of syphilis?

Skin and mucosal rashes, especially visible on the palms and soles; tissue damage

48

In syphilis, the damage done to tissue is cause by what?

an inflammatory response to circulating immune complexes

49

What happens in the latent period of syphilis?

No symptoms

50

What happens in the tertiary stage of syphilis?

Syphilis may reappear after years of latency due to cell-mediated immune reactions; described as Teflon pathogen

51

Type of syphilis that has gummas on many organs

Gummatous syphilis

52

Type of syphilis that causes the aorta to weaken

Cardiovascular syphilis

53

Type of syphilis that affect the central nervous system, dementia, seizures, loss of coordination of voluntary movement, partial paralysis

Neurosyphilis

54

Type of syphilis where bacteria is transmitted across the placenta and causes neurological damage to the fetus

Congenital syphilis

55

Caused by: C. trachomatis that infect lymphoid tissue
Symptoms: regional lymph nodes become enlarged and tender; discharge of pus (suppuration), scarring
Diagnosis: blood test for antibodies
Treatment: doxycycline

Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)

56

Caused by: Aemophilus ducreyi, Gram-negative rod
Symptoms: Swollen, painful ulcer on genitals and infected lymph nodes in groin area (pus discharge)
Difficult to diagnose
Treatment: azithromycin or ceftriaxone

Chancroid (Soft Chancre)

57

inflammation of the vagina due to infection

Vaginitis

58

Caused by: fungus Candida albicans, bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis, or protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis
Symptoms: vaginal pH above 4.5, copious, frothy vaginal discharge
Diagnosis: based on vaginal pH, fishy odor, microscopic observation of clue cells in discharge
Treatment: metronidazole

Bacterial Vaginosis

59

Caused by: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV–2)
Symptoms: lesions, burning sensation, vesicles, painful urination, uncomfortable walking
Diagnosis: Culture of the virus from the vesicle; PCR, serological testing if no legions
Treatment: No cure; suppression and management with acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir

Genital Herpes

60

What happens in neonatal herpes?

virus crosses the placental barrier and affect the fetus, causing spontaneous abortion or serious fatal damage

61

How are newborns infected with HSV?

exposed during delivery

62

How is Neonatal Herpes diagnosed?

PCR tests and fluorescent antibody tests

63

How is neonatal herpes treated?

intravenous acyclovir

64

Also known as condyloma acuminata
Caused by: human papillomaviruses
Symptoms: Visible warts caused by serotypes 6 and 11;
Serotypes 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer
Treatment: podofilox and imiquimod

Genital Warts

65

Caused by: yeastlike fungi Candida that grows on the mucosa of the mouth, the intestinal tract, and the genitourinary tract
Most common form is C. albicans
Symptoms: oral candidiasis (thrush), NGU in men, lesions, yeasty, thick, yellow discharge
Diagnosis: microscopic ID in scrapings of lesions, isolation of fungus culture
Treatment: topical application of non prescription antifungal drugs (clotrimazole or fluconazole)

Candidiasis

66

Normal inhabitant of the vagina and urethra; normally sexually transmitted

Trichomoniasis

67

Caused by: Trichomonas vaginalis (grows when normal acidity of the vagina is disturbed)
Symptoms: Irritation and a profuse foul, greenish yellow frothy discharge
Diagnosis: microscopic identification or a DNA probe
Treatment: metronidazole

Trichomoniasis