Flashcards in Chapter 26 Deck (67):
The urinary system consists of
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, single urinary bladder, single urethra
How are urinary infections prevented?
valves prevent backflow into kidneys, acidity of urine, flushing action of urine
The female reproductive system consists of
2 ovaries, 2 uterine (fallopian) tubes, the uterus (including cervix), vagina, and external genitals (vulva)
What do the ovaries produce
female sex hormones and ova (eggs)
What makes up the female external genitals
clitoris, labia, and glands
The male reproductive system consists of
Two testes, system of ducts, epididymis, ductus (vas) deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra, accessory glands, penis
Produces male sex hormones and sperm
What path do sperm cells take to exit the body
epididymis to ductus (vas) deferens, through the ejaculatory duct then urethra
What are the portals of entry for microbes into the female and male reproductive systems
bladder, urethra, ureters, kidneys
Is normal urine sterile?
Which has fewer microbrial contaminants, urine directly from the urinary bladder or voided urine
urine directly from the urinary bladder
What is the predominant bacteria in the vagina
What does lactobacilli produce in the vagina that maintains the acidic pH and inhibits microbe growth
What promotes the growth of lactobacilli and how?
estrogen; enhancing the production of glycogen by vaginal epithelial cells
What yeastlike fungus is a part of the vagina's normal microbiota?
Are there other bacteria such as streptococci, various anarobes, or gram-negatives found in the vagina?
How can normal urine become contaminated?
from the microbiota of the skin near the end of its passage through the urethra
___ ____ and the upper ____ ____ are sterile
Urinary bladder, upper urinary tract
Is the male urethra usually sterile or unsterile?
Inflammation of the urethra
infection of the urinary bladder
Infection of the ureters
Inflammation of one or both kidneys
Primarily a disease of domestic or wild animals, but can be passed to humans and may cause severe kidney or liver disease
Of the 7 million urinary tract infections annually, most are due to what bacteria?
Caused by E. coli or S. saprophyticus
Symptoms: dysuria and pyuria
8x's more common in women
Diagnosis: Urine sample w/ >100 CFU/ml and positive leukocyte esterase test
Caused by E. coli (75% of cases)
Symptoms: fever and flank (back pain)
Diagnosis: Urine sample w/ >10,000 CFU/ml and positive leukocyte esterase test
Results in bacteremia
Chronic conditions causes scar tissue to form in kidney and impairs their function
Caused by Leptospira interrogans
Has characteristic shape (fine spiral), stains poorly, obligate aerobe
Transmission: contact with urine contaminated water, soil, or animal tissue
Pathogen enters through skin/mucous membrane or ingested through mucosa
Symptoms: headaches, muscular aches, chills, fever
Kidney failure most common cause of death
Diagnosis: rapid serological test
A 20-year-old woman feels a stinging sensation when urinating and feels an urgent need to urinate, even if very little urine is excreted. Lactose-fermenting, gram-negative rods are cultured from her urine.
Can you identify infections that could cause these symptoms?
What does STD stand for
sexually transmitted diseases
What does STI stand for
sexually transmitted infections
STD's can be treated with _____ and prevented by using _____
Cause: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gram-negative diplococcus; attaches to the epithelial mucosa by the fimbriae and invades the spaces between the columnar epithelial cells
Symptoms: Men: painful urination and discharge of pus; epididymitis; women: fewer symptoms; pelvic inflammatory disease
Diagnosis: In men, gonococci stained smear of pus; in women, culture from cervix is grown on media, ELISA test
Treatment: cephalosporins (cetriaxone or cefixime)
infant blindness due to a gonorrheal infection of the eyes
If gonorrhea is untreated, what may happen?
may disseminate and become systemic Endocarditis
Meningitis, or Arthritis
Any inflammation of the urethra not caused by Neisseria gonorrhaeae with symptoms of painful urination and watery discharge
Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) a.k.a nonspecific urethritis (NSU)
The most common pathogen associated with NGU
Other than C. trachomatis, what other bacteria causes NGU?
Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis
How is NGU diagnosed?
culture or PCR
How is NGU treated?
doxycycline and azithromycin
Collective term for any extensive bacterial infection of the female pelvic organs, particularly the uterus, cervix, uterine tubes, or ovaries
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Polymicrobial infection (number of different pathogens may be cause)
Cause: N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, normally
Symptoms: Chronic abdominal pain
Diagnosis: signs and symptoms w/ lab indications of gonorrheal or chlamydial infection of cervix
May result in scarring can cause infertility or ectopic pregnancy
Treatment: doxycycline and cefoxitin
Cause: Treponema pallidum, Gram-negative spirochete
Produces lipoproteins that induce inflammatory immune response
How is syphillis diagnosed?
Direct fluorescent-antibody test (DFA-TP) with monoclonal antibodies
Nontreponemal serological tests
Slide agglutination VDRL test
Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test
Treponemal-type serological tests
Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)
Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test
What is syphilis treated with
What happens in the primary stage of syphilis?
Chancre at the site of infection about 3 weeks after exposure
Painless and highly infectious
Disappears after 2 weeks
What happens in the secondary stage of syphilis?
Skin and mucosal rashes, especially visible on the palms and soles; tissue damage
In syphilis, the damage done to tissue is cause by what?
an inflammatory response to circulating immune complexes
What happens in the latent period of syphilis?
What happens in the tertiary stage of syphilis?
Syphilis may reappear after years of latency due to cell-mediated immune reactions; described as Teflon pathogen
Type of syphilis that has gummas on many organs
Type of syphilis that causes the aorta to weaken
Type of syphilis that affect the central nervous system, dementia, seizures, loss of coordination of voluntary movement, partial paralysis
Type of syphilis where bacteria is transmitted across the placenta and causes neurological damage to the fetus
Caused by: C. trachomatis that infect lymphoid tissue
Symptoms: regional lymph nodes become enlarged and tender; discharge of pus (suppuration), scarring
Diagnosis: blood test for antibodies
Lymphogranuloma Venereum (LGV)
Caused by: Aemophilus ducreyi, Gram-negative rod
Symptoms: Swollen, painful ulcer on genitals and infected lymph nodes in groin area (pus discharge)
Difficult to diagnose
Treatment: azithromycin or ceftriaxone
Chancroid (Soft Chancre)
inflammation of the vagina due to infection
Caused by: fungus Candida albicans, bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis, or protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis
Symptoms: vaginal pH above 4.5, copious, frothy vaginal discharge
Diagnosis: based on vaginal pH, fishy odor, microscopic observation of clue cells in discharge
Caused by: herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV–2)
Symptoms: lesions, burning sensation, vesicles, painful urination, uncomfortable walking
Diagnosis: Culture of the virus from the vesicle; PCR, serological testing if no legions
Treatment: No cure; suppression and management with acyclovir, famciclovir, and valacyclovir
What happens in neonatal herpes?
virus crosses the placental barrier and affect the fetus, causing spontaneous abortion or serious fatal damage
How are newborns infected with HSV?
exposed during delivery
How is Neonatal Herpes diagnosed?
PCR tests and fluorescent antibody tests
How is neonatal herpes treated?
Also known as condyloma acuminata
Caused by: human papillomaviruses
Symptoms: Visible warts caused by serotypes 6 and 11;
Serotypes 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer
Treatment: podofilox and imiquimod
Caused by: yeastlike fungi Candida that grows on the mucosa of the mouth, the intestinal tract, and the genitourinary tract
Most common form is C. albicans
Symptoms: oral candidiasis (thrush), NGU in men, lesions, yeasty, thick, yellow discharge
Diagnosis: microscopic ID in scrapings of lesions, isolation of fungus culture
Treatment: topical application of non prescription antifungal drugs (clotrimazole or fluconazole)
Normal inhabitant of the vagina and urethra; normally sexually transmitted