Chapter 26 & 27 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 26 & 27 Deck (41):
1

What is the most predominant normal flora in the female genital tract?

Lactobacillus

2

What are some of the factors that predispose you to bacterial diseases in the urinary system?

a.) Toxemia in pregnancy
b.) CNS disorders; hormonal imbalances
c.) kidney stones, tumors that cause obstruction of urine flow.
d.) Diabetes mellitus

3

Which major pathogen causes 35% of nosocomial infections in the urinary tract?

E. Coli

4

Normal urine has less that _____ bacteria.

10,000

5

Urine showing an infection has greater than ______ bacteria.

100,000

6

Which bacteria is a common cause for UTI's?

Staphylococcus Saprophytica

7

Cystitis causes painful urination, also known as what?

dysuria

8

What is Pyelonephritis?

kidney infection

9

Pyelonephritis is always _______, often causing permanent kidney damage

serious

10

What are some of the bacteria that cause Pyelonephritis?

E. Coli, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Strep. pyogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococci

11

What is Glomerulonephritis?

Immune damage to glomerulus in kidneys.

12

Leptospirosis is caused by what bacteria?

L. interogans

13

What are the reservoirs of Leptospirosis?

domestic and wild animals, urine, water

14

What are symptoms of Leptospirosis?

chills, headache, muscle ache, liver/kidney damage, death.

15

Can Leptospirosis be treated?

Yes, very easily if detected early. Sometimes not if not detected early

16

What bacteria causes Gonorrhea?

Nisseria gonorrhea (G - cocci)

17

What two main bacteria can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)?

1. N. gonorrhea
2. Chlamydia trachomatis

18

What is Opthalmia neonatorum?

blindness in newborns; the reason doctors in US treat all newborns with eyedrops to prevent this being caused by gonorrhea or chlamydia

19

What is the most important bacteria that causes Non Gonococcal Urethritis?

Chlamydia trachomatis

20

What does Lymphogranuloma venerum cause in males?

infects lymphatic vessels causing lymph node enlargement

21

What are the other two bacteria that cause Non Gonococcal Urethritis? (these two not being as important)

1. Ureaplasma urealyticum
2. Mycoplasma heminis

22

What spirochete bacteria is responsible for Syphilis?

Treponema pallidum

23

Who is most likely to get Syphillis?

homosexual males, poorer people, drug users, prostitutes

24

Main way Syphillis is transmitted?

sexual contact

25

What are the 4 stages of Syphillis?

1. Primary Stage (canker sores)
2. Secondary Stage (highly infectious)
3. Latent Period (not infectious after 2.4 yrs)
4. Tertiary Stage ? (immune damage)

26

What causes damage during the Tertiary Stage?

The immune system overreacting

27

What is Congenital Syphilis?

When the disease is passed from mother to fetus causing mental damage and neurological disorders

28

What is a main way to test for Syphilis?

PCR

29

What are the 3 organisms that cause Gardnerella vaginitis?

1. Gardnerella vaginalis (fishy odor)
2. Candida albicans (yeast odor)
3. Trichomonas vaginalis (protozoa; foul odor)

30

Is Genital Herpes a DNA virus or an RNA virus?

DNA

31

What are symptoms of genital herpes?

painful urination, blisters, vesicle at the site of infection

32

Can condoms protect against genital herpes?

No

33

What are factors that cause reactivation in genital herpes?

menstruation, fever, emotional stress

34

What can happen in Neonatal Herpes?

abortion, neurological damage

35

Can neonatal herpes be tested for while the baby is still in utero?

Yes, the virus can be detected in the amniotic fluid

36

What is the main treatment for genital herpes?

Acyclovir; oral tablet

37

What is Papillomavirus?

a DNA virus that causes genital warts

38

What two cancers can Papillomavirus cause?

cervical & penis

39

How many new cases of Genital Warts are there every year?

500,000

40

How many different types of papillomavirus are there?

52

41

**List the 12 microorganisms transmitted through contaminated water**

1. E. Coli
2. Shigella
3. Salmonella
4. Campylobacter
5. Giardia lamblia
6. Cryptosporidium
7. Hepatitis A
8. Cholera
10. Poliovirus
11. Pseudomonas
12. Legionella