Flashcards in Chapter 26: Criminal Sanctions and Punishment Pt. 1 Deck (56):
What are the purposes of criminal sanctions?
(1) serve to reinforce cherished values and beliefs
(2) incapacitate and deter those who are thinking about criminal misconduct
(3) maintain power relations in a society
(4) eliminate threats to the prevailing social order
(5) instrumental and symbolic value
How are criminal sanctions both instrumental and symbolic?
(1) dramatizing certain behaviors in a society
(2) enhance communal solidarity against external threats
(3) provide the means for social engineering efforts directed at improving the quality of life
What are the different types criminal sanctions?
(1) Economic Punishments
(2) Incapacitative Sanctions
(3) Corporal Punishments
What are Economic punishments?
direct financial consequences to offenders
Economic punishments include things like _________, _________ and/or _________ ________.
What types of crimes usually receive economic punishments?
(1) white collar crimes
(2) traffic violations and less serious criminal offenses
Particular monetary amount can also be paid in exchange for a ____ or ______ sentence
_____ can be imposed in addition to other sentences
What type of economic punishments can corporate/organization crime receive?
(2) cease and desist orders
(3) revocation of licenses
What is asset forfeiture?
assets are given to the government
What is asset forfeiture primarily used for?
the prosecution of drug offenders and organized crime syndicates
Asset forfeiture can be used as a response to ______ _________ off of illegal activities
What are Incapacitative Sanctions?
physically restrain behavioral patterns
What are the different types of Incapacitative Sanctions?
(2) physical restraints on the body
(3) incapacitative structures
(4) short-term incapacitation and probation
What is an old example of banishment/exile/deportation?
England used “transportation” to colonies
What is a new example of banishment/exile/deportation?
deportation of “illegal aliens”
Physical restraints on the body are used for both ___________ and ________ __________.
What are some examples of physical restraints on the body?
chains, stocks, and yokes
What is the most recent form of physical restraints on the body?
electronic monitoring though ankle bracelets, handcuffs, and finger cuffs
What are some examples of short-term incapacitation and probation?
(1) shock incarceration
(2) supervised probation
What is shock incarceration?
a temporary incapacitation program in which the convicted offender is given a brief period of confinement in an institution and then released back into the community
What is supervised probation?
a type of incapacitative sanction that involves conditions of confinement placed on the probationer’s body
Which countries have the highest incarceration rates?
(1) United States
(2) Russian Federation
(3) St. Kitts and Nevis
What is the problem with international (incarcerate rates) comparison?
(1) different countries may use different definitions of “incarceration”
(2) incarceration structures/facilities that seriously history the reported incarceration rate
What is corporal punishment?
involve death or physical suffering through the direct application of physical force on the human body
What is the philosophical rationale for corporal punishments?
(2) specific and general deterrence
Particular types of corporal punishment are linked to?
(3) the availability of technology within particular countries at particular times
What are the various outcomes of corporal punishments?
(1) short-term pain
(2) permanent disfiguration and injury
What are the most infamous periods of corporal punishment?
(1) Spanish Inquisition
(2) Reign of Henry VIII
(3) Elizabethan period in England
(4) “reign of terror”, French Revolution
(5) Puritan settlements
(6) mass genocides and democides of the 20th century
What are the most common types of corporal punishment?
(2) branding and other bodily mutilations
(3) capital punishment
What is flogging?
the whipping of the body with some object
When was flogging used?
(1) publicly in early American colonies
(2) primary method for punishing slaves in the Southern colonies
(3) used in both the military and prison labor camps
What is branding?
marking of the body with a letter or other mark that signifies the offender’s deviant status or criminal offense
_______ provided a direct means of public stigmatization
Branding provided a direct means of ______ ____________
When did the most gruesome and extreme types of public stigmatization occur?
the Middle Ages
How long does capital punishment last?
death can be slow or fast
What are the historical uses of capital punishment?
(3) lethal gas
(5) lethal injections
(7) drawing and quartering
_________ was considered an honorable form of punishment.
Beheadings are currently applied (in most countries) to both _______ and _________
Thousands of French citizens lost their heads in the ________ during the “reign of terror
________ was considered slow and less dignified in Western societies
Lethal gas was used during the ________ and more recently on the _____ in _____
Why was lethal gas created and why?
it was created in the mid 1920s by the U.S. as an alternative to electrocutions and hanging
When did death by electrocution begin?
began in the late 1800s
__________ was the primary means of execution until being replaced by lethal injection.
Electrocution was the primary means of execution until being replaced by ______ _________.
True or False: Only the U.S. has used electrocution as execution
When did lethal injections begin?
began in the U.S. in 1982
over 95% of the legal executions in the U.S. are done via _____ _________
Executions via fire have had ________ value within some ________ contexts.
What is drawing and quartering?
involves the separation of body parts
What is lapidation?
lapidation derives from _______ _____.
lapidation is more recently used under _______ ____