Chapter 26: Criminal Sanctions and Punishment Pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 26: Criminal Sanctions and Punishment Pt. 1 Deck (56):
1

What are the purposes of criminal sanctions?

(1) serve to reinforce cherished values and beliefs
(2) incapacitate and deter those who are thinking about criminal misconduct
(3) maintain power relations in a society
(4) eliminate threats to the prevailing social order
(5) instrumental and symbolic value

2

How are criminal sanctions both instrumental and symbolic?

(1) dramatizing certain behaviors in a society

(2) enhance communal solidarity against external threats

(3) provide the means for social engineering efforts directed at improving the quality of life

3

What are the different types criminal sanctions?

(1) Economic Punishments
(2) Incapacitative Sanctions
(3) Corporal Punishments

4

What are Economic punishments?

direct financial consequences to offenders

5

Economic punishments include things like _________, _________ and/or _________ ________.

retribution
deterrence
restorative justice

6

What types of crimes usually receive economic punishments?

(1) white collar crimes
(2) traffic violations and less serious criminal offenses

7

Particular monetary amount can also be paid in exchange for a ____ or ______ sentence

jail
prison

8

_____ can be imposed in addition to other sentences

fines

9

What type of economic punishments can corporate/organization crime receive?

(1) injunctions
(2) cease and desist orders
(3) revocation of licenses
(4) suspensions

10

What is asset forfeiture?

assets are given to the government

11

What is asset forfeiture primarily used for?

the prosecution of drug offenders and organized crime syndicates

12

Asset forfeiture can be used as a response to ______ _________ off of illegal activities

money laundering

13

What are Incapacitative Sanctions?

physically restrain behavioral patterns

14

What are the different types of Incapacitative Sanctions?

(1) banishment/exile/deportation
(2) physical restraints on the body
(3) incapacitative structures
(4) short-term incapacitation and probation

15

What is an old example of banishment/exile/deportation?

England used “transportation” to colonies

16

What is a new example of banishment/exile/deportation?

deportation of “illegal aliens”

17

Physical restraints on the body are used for both ___________ and ________ __________.

incapacitation
corporal punishment

18

What are some examples of physical restraints on the body?

chains, stocks, and yokes

19

What is the most recent form of physical restraints on the body?

electronic monitoring though ankle bracelets, handcuffs, and finger cuffs

20

What are some examples of short-term incapacitation and probation?

(1) shock incarceration
(2) supervised probation

21

What is shock incarceration?

a temporary incapacitation program in which the convicted offender is given a brief period of confinement in an institution and then released back into the community

22

What is supervised probation?

a type of incapacitative sanction that involves conditions of confinement placed on the probationer’s body

23

Which countries have the highest incarceration rates?

(1) United States
(2) Russian Federation
(3) St. Kitts and Nevis
(4) Rwanda
(5) Thailand
(6) Bahrain
(7) Guam

24

What is the problem with international (incarcerate rates) comparison?

(1) different countries may use different definitions of “incarceration”

(2) incarceration structures/facilities that seriously history the reported incarceration rate

25

What is corporal punishment?

involve death or physical suffering through the direct application of physical force on the human body

26

What is the philosophical rationale for corporal punishments?

(1) retribution
(2) specific and general deterrence
(3) rehabilitation

27

Particular types of corporal punishment are linked to?

(1) customs
(2) rituals
(3) the availability of technology within particular countries at particular times

28

What are the various outcomes of corporal punishments?

(1) short-term pain
(2) permanent disfiguration and injury
(3) death

29

What are the most infamous periods of corporal punishment?

(1) Spanish Inquisition
(2) Reign of Henry VIII
(3) Elizabethan period in England
(4) “reign of terror”, French Revolution
(5) Puritan settlements
(6) mass genocides and democides of the 20th century

30

What are the most common types of corporal punishment?

(1) flogging
(2) branding and other bodily mutilations
(3) capital punishment

31

What is flogging?

the whipping of the body with some object

32

When was flogging used?

(1) publicly in early American colonies

(2) primary method for punishing slaves in the Southern colonies

(3) used in both the military and prison labor camps

33

What is branding?

marking of the body with a letter or other mark that signifies the offender’s deviant status or criminal offense

34

_______ provided a direct means of public stigmatization

Branding

35

Branding provided a direct means of ______ ____________

public stigmatization

36

When did the most gruesome and extreme types of public stigmatization occur?

the Middle Ages

37

How long does capital punishment last?

death can be slow or fast

38

What are the historical uses of capital punishment?

(1) Beheading
(2) hanging
(3) lethal gas
(4) electrocution
(5) lethal injections
(6) fire
(7) drawing and quartering
(8) lapidation

39

_________ was considered an honorable form of punishment.

Beheading

40

Beheadings are currently applied (in most countries) to both _______ and _________

nobles
commoners

41

Thousands of French citizens lost their heads in the ________ during the “reign of terror

guillotine

42

________ was considered slow and less dignified in Western societies

Hanging

43

Lethal gas was used during the ________ and more recently on the _____ in _____

holocaust
Kurds
Iraq

44

Why was lethal gas created and why?

it was created in the mid 1920s by the U.S. as an alternative to electrocutions and hanging

45

When did death by electrocution begin?

began in the late 1800s

46

__________ was the primary means of execution until being replaced by lethal injection.

Electrocution

47

Electrocution was the primary means of execution until being replaced by ______ _________.

lethal injection

48

True or False: Only the U.S. has used electrocution as execution

True

49

When did lethal injections begin?

began in the U.S. in 1982

50

over 95% of the legal executions in the U.S. are done via _____ _________

lethal injection

51

Executions via fire have had ________ value within some ________ contexts.

symbolic
religious

52

What is drawing and quartering?

involves the separation of body parts

53

What is lapidation?

stoning

54

lapidation derives from _______ _____.

Mosaic code

55

lapidation is more recently used under _______ ____

Islamic law

56

lapidation has been historically used against _______ who committed _______

women
adultery

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