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Flashcards in Chapter 27 Deck (57):
1

Represents PERSONALIZED approach to healthy food choices

Food pyramid

2

Calorie intake based on______

Gender,age and activity level

3

USDA recommend a DAILY dietary intake in healthy moderate ____ yr olds

18 yr olds

4

Types of nutrients

1.Carbohydrates
2.lipids
3.proteins
4.water
5.minerals
6.vitamins

5

How many calories a day for a female

About 2000/ cal a day

6

How many calories a day for a male

About 2800 cal/ a day

7

_______ % calories from carbonhydrates with less then 15 % simple (sweet) sugars

50-60%

8

Less then ____% from FATS with less then ____% SATURATED FATS

30%
10%

9

_____% from PROTEINS

12-15%

10

Each gram of protein or carbonhydrate produces ___ CALORIES of energy

4

11

EACH GRAM of fat produces ___ calories of energy

A (1)

12

Healthy eating guidelines
1.Eat a ___ of foods

VARIETY

13

Healthy eating guidelines
2. Maintain _____

HEALTHY WEIGHT

14

Healthy eating guidelines
3. Eat foods ___insaturated fats & cholesterol

LOW

15

The body uses ______ & _______ as energy and building materials

Carbonhydrates & proteins

16

Involved in CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Minerals

17

Most abundant mineral

Calcium

18

Hemoglobin

Iron

19

Nerve & muscle action potentials

Sodium and potassium

20

Involved in chemical reactions

Vitamins

21

Fat soluble _,_,_ and _ vitamins

A,D,E and K vitamins

22

Absorbs dietary CALCIUM and is associated with RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA

Vitamin D

23

Involved in blood CLOTTING

Vitamin K

24

Antioxidant and promotes COLLAGEN formation

Vitamin C

25

REQUIRES energy FROM ATP to form LARGER molecules

Anabolism (metabolism)

26

TRANSFERS energy TO ATP by BREAKING down larger molecules

Catabolism

27

MAIN source of ATP production

Glucose

28

______ and _____ are converted to glucose

FRUTOSE AND GALATOSE

29

EXCESS glucose (____ grams) forms fats

500 grams

30

COMPLETE CATABOLISM of 1 glucose molecule produces __-___ ATP

36-38 ATP

31

ANAEROBIC process occurs in cytsosol

Glycolysis

32

Aerobic PROCESS OCCURS in MITOCHONDRIA

Krebs cycle and electron transport chain

33

Increase INSULIN production,permitting GLUCOSE transports INTO CELLS forming glycogen and blood glucose is LOWERED

HIGH blood
Glucose levels

34

Increase GLYCOGEN EPINEPHRINE, CORTISOL production stimulations

LOW blood glucose levels

35

GLYCOGEN BREAKDOWN and LIPID and PROTEIN breakdown by _____ resulting in an increase INCREASE in blood GLUCOSE levels

Gluconeogenis

36

Increase INSULIN production, permitting GLUCOSE transports INTO CELLS forming glycogen and blood glucose is LOWERED

HIGH blood glucose levels

37

Increase GLYCOGEN,EPINEPHRINE and CORTISOL production stimulating

LOW blood glucose levels

38

GLYCOGEN BREAKDOWN and LIPID and PROTEIN breakdown by ________ resulting in an INCREASE in blood GLUCOSE levels

GLUCONEOGENIS (glucose regulation)

39

triglyceride BREAKDOWN forms fatty acids and _______

KETONE BODIES (lipid catabolism) (lipolysis)

40

______ and _____ may form excessive ketone bodies -----> ACETONE (sweet breathe)

DIABETICS And AlCOHOLICS

41

This may result in ______an abnormally LOW PH that may result in death

KETOACIDOSIS

42

____ are hydroPHOBIC (insoluble in water); combine with proteins to form lipoproteins that transport lipids

Lipids

43

EXCESSIVE carbonhydrates and proteins form fats

LIPID ANABOLISM

44

UNLIMITED storage capacity ; most stored in _____

SUBCUTANEOUS LAYER

45

(Lipoprotein types) 1.Transports dietary fats

Chylomicrons

46

_____ "bad" lipoproteins (LDLS); INCREASE risk of coronary artery disease

Low density

47

_____ "good"lipoproteins (HDL'S) DECREASE risk of coronary artery disease

HIGH DENSITY

48

Unlike carbonhydrates & fats PROTEINS NOT STORED for future use

Protein metabolism

49

Involved DEAMATATION removal of a amino group for ATP formation

Protein CATABOLISM

50

Requires ESSENTIAL and NON ESSENTIAL amino acids

Protein ANABOLISM

51

Metabolic rate INCREASED by

•EXERCISE
•THYROID hormones
•SYMPHATIC nervous system
•INGESTION of food

52

Body heat transfer
1. Objects transfer heat WITHOUT physical contact

Radiation

53

Body heat transfer
2.objects transfers heat WITH physical contact

CONDUCTION

54

Body heat transfer. 3.Heat transfers heat by MOVEMENT of liquid or gas

CONVECTION

55

Conversion of water to VAPOR

EVAPORATION

56

Controlled by NEGATIVE feedback I'm hypothalamus

Body temperature REGULATION

57

PYROGENS released from phagocytes reset internal body thermostat to higher temperature causing ____

SHIVERING