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Flashcards in Chapter 27 Deck (50):
1

How do microbes enter the urinary tract?

-urethra

2

How do microbes enter the reproductive tract?

-vagina in females
-urethra in males

3

What are the normal flora of the genitourinary system?

-lactobacillus
-staphylococcus (coagulase neg)
-bacteroides
-streptococcus

4

Where is the genitourinary tract sterile? Where are the normal flora found?

-sterile: urinary bladder and upper urinary tract
-Lower urethra

5

What makes the vagina acidic?

-presence of estrogen causes the deposition of glycogen into the vaginal cells
-glycogen then converted into lactic acid by the lactobacilli

6

Why should the vagina be acidic?

-to inhibit growth of pathogens
-to inhibit the growth of anaerobic organisms

7

What increases the risk of a UTI?

-any situation interfering with the urine flow

8

What is bacterial cystitis?

-inflammation of the bladder

9

What is the causative agent of bacterial cystitis?

-E. coli
-accounts for 89-90% of UTI in women

10

What are other causative agents of bacterial cystitis?

-klebsiella
-pseudomonas
-enterococcus faecalis

11

What is pyleronephritis?

-a serious complication of bacterial cystitis
-when bacteria ascend ureters and cause damage to the kidneys

12

What are some reasons that women are more at risk for UTIs?

-relatively short urethra
-use of diaphragm contraceptive
-sexual intercourse
-wiping back to front
-medical conditions

13

When do UTIs in men most generally occur? Why?

-after the age of 50
-enlargement of prostate which compresses the urethra

14

How does E. coli cause a UTI?

-pili attach to receptors on the bladder

15

What are some symptoms of bacterial cystitis?

-abrupt onset of burning pain on urination
-urgent sensation to void
-difficulty urinating
-cloudy urine (due to leukocytes)
-odor
-may have a pale or red color

16

Why is Cranberry juice used to treat a UTI?

-acidic
-contains chemicals that bind to the P fimbrae of the E. coli and prevent it from attaching to the bladder

17

What are the chemicals in cranberry juice called?

-proanthocyanidins

18

How long is the reproductive time of E. coli?

-20 mins

19

How do you prevent Bacterial Cystitis?

-take in enough fluid
-void after intercourse
-wipe front to back
-avoid irritating feminine products

20

What percent of women get a UTI?

-30%

21

What is the causative agent of Leptospirosis?

-Leptospira interrogans

22

What kind of infection is Leptospirosis?

-zoonotic

23

How do you get Leptospirosis?

-enters through a mucus membrane of a wound and then enters the bloodstream
-urinary system is infected by the blood

24

What kind of animals does Leptospirosis affect?

-raccoons
-rodents (excrete for life)
-domesticated animals
-excreted in urine

25

What does Leptospirosis cause?

-neurological and UTI symptoms

26

What is the treatment for Leptospirosis?

-most cases are mild and require no treatment

27

What are symptoms of Leptospirosis?

-abrupt onset of headache
-spiking fever and chills
-severe muscle pain
-eye redness! (due to dilation of blood vessels)

28

How does Leptospirosis enter the body? How does it spread?

-mucus membranes and breaks in the skin
-multiplies and spreads via bloodstream

29

What are the two phases of Leptospirosis?

-septicemic phase
-immune phase

30

What is the septicemic phase of Leptospirosis?

-early phase of severe pain
-pathogens in blood stream and CSF

31

What are the symptoms of the septicemic phase of Leptospirosis? What response is lacking?

-sudden high fever and chills
-headache
-pain
-muscle aches
-conjunctivitis
-vomiting
-lack of brain and eye inflammation

32

What is characteristic of the immune phase of Leptospirosis?

-recurrent symptoms due to immune response

33

What are symptoms of the immune phase of Leptospirosis?

-mild fever
-headache
-characterized by injury to cells of tiny blood vessels

34

What does the injury to cells of tiny blood vessels cause?

-causes clotting and impaired blood flow to tissue
-accounts for most of the side effects of disease (liver and kidney failure; Weil's disease)
-jaundice, anemia, and neurological disturbances

35

What mistake surgery happens sometimes with Leptospirosis?

-appendix removal
-gallbladder removal

36

Is there a vaccine for Leptospirosis? How useful is it?

-yes
-limited for specific strain-limited use
-used for military troops, animal care, and livestock workers

37

How do you prevent Leptospirosis?

-protective footwear and clothing

38

How do you reduce the symptoms of Leptospirosis?

-amoxicillin
-tetracycline
-doxycycline
-antibiotics

39

What kind of toxin does Leptospirosis have?

-endotoxin

40

What happens when the endotoxin of Leptospirosis is released?

-worsening of symptoms
-Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction

41

What is bacterial vaginosis? What is the causative agent?

-decrease in vaginal lactobacilli
-Gardnerella vaginalis

42

When does bacterial vaginosis happen in women?

-during their childbearing years
-16% of pregnant women

43

What are symptoms of Bacterial vaginosis?

-thin, grayish-white discharge
-discharge may he slightly bubbly
-pungent fishy odor

44

Is there inflammation in Bacterial vaginosis?

-NO

45

What does Bacterial vaginosis cause?

-decrease in vaginal acidity
-derangement of normal flora
-increase number of slough vaginal cells

46

What is another name for slough vaginal cells?

-clue cells

47

Why is there a fishy odor with Bacterial vaginosis?

-metabolic products produced by vaginal anaerobes

48

What occurs in Bacterial vaginosis?

-decrease in acidity of vagina
-due to decreased normal flora and increased clue cells

49

What can happen if a woman is pregnant with Bacterial vaginosis?

-premature birth
-low birth weight (less than 5lbs)

50

How do you prevent/treat Bacterial vaginosis?

-yogurt (orally or vaginally)
-antibacterial (metronidazole)