Flashcards in Chapter 27 Deck (50):
How do microbes enter the urinary tract?
How do microbes enter the reproductive tract?
-vagina in females
-urethra in males
What are the normal flora of the genitourinary system?
-staphylococcus (coagulase neg)
Where is the genitourinary tract sterile? Where are the normal flora found?
-sterile: urinary bladder and upper urinary tract
What makes the vagina acidic?
-presence of estrogen causes the deposition of glycogen into the vaginal cells
-glycogen then converted into lactic acid by the lactobacilli
Why should the vagina be acidic?
-to inhibit growth of pathogens
-to inhibit the growth of anaerobic organisms
What increases the risk of a UTI?
-any situation interfering with the urine flow
What is bacterial cystitis?
-inflammation of the bladder
What is the causative agent of bacterial cystitis?
-accounts for 89-90% of UTI in women
What are other causative agents of bacterial cystitis?
What is pyleronephritis?
-a serious complication of bacterial cystitis
-when bacteria ascend ureters and cause damage to the kidneys
What are some reasons that women are more at risk for UTIs?
-relatively short urethra
-use of diaphragm contraceptive
-wiping back to front
When do UTIs in men most generally occur? Why?
-after the age of 50
-enlargement of prostate which compresses the urethra
How does E. coli cause a UTI?
-pili attach to receptors on the bladder
What are some symptoms of bacterial cystitis?
-abrupt onset of burning pain on urination
-urgent sensation to void
-cloudy urine (due to leukocytes)
-may have a pale or red color
Why is Cranberry juice used to treat a UTI?
-contains chemicals that bind to the P fimbrae of the E. coli and prevent it from attaching to the bladder
What are the chemicals in cranberry juice called?
How long is the reproductive time of E. coli?
How do you prevent Bacterial Cystitis?
-take in enough fluid
-void after intercourse
-wipe front to back
-avoid irritating feminine products
What percent of women get a UTI?
What is the causative agent of Leptospirosis?
What kind of infection is Leptospirosis?
How do you get Leptospirosis?
-enters through a mucus membrane of a wound and then enters the bloodstream
-urinary system is infected by the blood
What kind of animals does Leptospirosis affect?
-rodents (excrete for life)
-excreted in urine
What does Leptospirosis cause?
-neurological and UTI symptoms
What is the treatment for Leptospirosis?
-most cases are mild and require no treatment
What are symptoms of Leptospirosis?
-abrupt onset of headache
-spiking fever and chills
-severe muscle pain
-eye redness! (due to dilation of blood vessels)
How does Leptospirosis enter the body? How does it spread?
-mucus membranes and breaks in the skin
-multiplies and spreads via bloodstream
What are the two phases of Leptospirosis?
What is the septicemic phase of Leptospirosis?
-early phase of severe pain
-pathogens in blood stream and CSF
What are the symptoms of the septicemic phase of Leptospirosis? What response is lacking?
-sudden high fever and chills
-lack of brain and eye inflammation
What is characteristic of the immune phase of Leptospirosis?
-recurrent symptoms due to immune response
What are symptoms of the immune phase of Leptospirosis?
-characterized by injury to cells of tiny blood vessels
What does the injury to cells of tiny blood vessels cause?
-causes clotting and impaired blood flow to tissue
-accounts for most of the side effects of disease (liver and kidney failure; Weil's disease)
-jaundice, anemia, and neurological disturbances
What mistake surgery happens sometimes with Leptospirosis?
Is there a vaccine for Leptospirosis? How useful is it?
-limited for specific strain-limited use
-used for military troops, animal care, and livestock workers
How do you prevent Leptospirosis?
-protective footwear and clothing
How do you reduce the symptoms of Leptospirosis?
What kind of toxin does Leptospirosis have?
What happens when the endotoxin of Leptospirosis is released?
-worsening of symptoms
What is bacterial vaginosis? What is the causative agent?
-decrease in vaginal lactobacilli
When does bacterial vaginosis happen in women?
-during their childbearing years
-16% of pregnant women
What are symptoms of Bacterial vaginosis?
-thin, grayish-white discharge
-discharge may he slightly bubbly
-pungent fishy odor
Is there inflammation in Bacterial vaginosis?
What does Bacterial vaginosis cause?
-decrease in vaginal acidity
-derangement of normal flora
-increase number of slough vaginal cells
What is another name for slough vaginal cells?
Why is there a fishy odor with Bacterial vaginosis?
-metabolic products produced by vaginal anaerobes
What occurs in Bacterial vaginosis?
-decrease in acidity of vagina
-due to decreased normal flora and increased clue cells
What can happen if a woman is pregnant with Bacterial vaginosis?
-low birth weight (less than 5lbs)