Chapter 27 - The New Power Balance 1850-1900 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 27 - The New Power Balance 1850-1900 Deck (19)
1

Commodore Matthew Perry

A navy commander who, on July 8, 1853, became the first foreigner to break through the barriers that had kept Japan isolated from the rest of the world for 250 years.

2

railroads

Networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. The first railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Their success caused a railroad-building boom throughout the world that lasted well into the twentieth century.

3

submarine telegraph cables

Insulated copper cables laid along the bottom of a sea or ocean for telegraphic communication. The first short cable was laid across the English Channel in 1851; the first successful transatlantic cable was laid in 1866.

4

steel

A form of iron that is both durable and flexible. It was first mass-produced in the 1860s and quickly became the most widely used metal in construction, machinery, and railroad equipment.

5

electricity

A form of energy used in telegraphy from the 1840s on and for lighting, industrial motors, and railroads beginning in the 1880s.

6

Thomas Edison

American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.

7

Victorian Age

The reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain (r.1837–1901). The term is also used to describe late-nineteenth-century society, with its rigid moral standards and sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle-class and working-class people.

8

“separate spheres”

Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have clearly differentiated roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics

9

socialism

A political ideology that originated in Europe in the 1830s. Socialists advocated government protection of workers from exploitation by property owners and government ownership of industries. This ideology led to the founding of socialist or labor parties throughout Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century.

10

labor union

An organization of workers in a particular industry or trade, created to defend the interests of members through strikes or negotiations with employers.

11

Karl Marx

German journalist and philosopher, founder of the Marxist branch of socialism. He is known for two books: Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) and Das Kapital (Vols. I–III, 1867–1894).

12

anarchists

Revolutionaries who wanted to abolish all private property and governments, usually by violence, and replace them with free associations of groups.

13

nationalism

A political ideology that stresses people’s membership in a nation—a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory.

14

liberalism

A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property.This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes of Europe and North America.

15

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian nationalist and revolutionary who conquered Sicily and Naples and added them to a unified Italy in 1860.

16

Otto von Bismarck

Chancellor (prime minister) of Prussia from 1862 until 1871, when he became chancellor of Germany. A conservative nationalist, he led Prussia to victory against Austria (1866) and France (1870) and was responsible for the creation of the German Empirein 1871.

17

Meiji Restoration

The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.

18

Empress Dowager Cixi

Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported antiforeign movements, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces.

19

Yamagata Aritomo

One of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration.