Chapter 29 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 29 Deck (22):
1

node

branch point

2

polytomy

more than 2 branches from a single node

3

Protist Nutrion: autotrophs

-Autotrophs: produce food by photosynthesis

4

Archaeplastids

-include land plants and other photosynthetic organisms (green algae, red algae)

-Spirogyra (charophyte)
-filamentous green algae, ribbon-like chloroplasts
-sexual reproduction via conjugation

5

Chromalveolates

-large, diverse
-includes: dimoflagellates, ciliates, brown algae, diatoms
-no apicomplexans or water molds

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Chromalveolates: Diatoms

-unicellular
-autotrophic: most important photosynthetic organisms on earth
-glassy cell well containing silica
-diatomaceous earth formed from the fossilized remains
-used as filter or in abrasives

7

Chromalveolates: Brown Algae

-large and complex
-multicellular
-mostly marine
-primary producers for diverse and productive community

-include KELP (attach to sea floors, may reach 60 meters)

8

Chromalveolates: Dinoflagellates

-unicellular algae
-cause "blooms" in polluted coastal water (red tides, bioluminescent ocean)

9

Chromalveolates: ciliates

-unicellular protists including hetertrophs (eat other things)
-cilia to move and sweep food into their mouth
-paramecium

10

Excavates

-heterotrophic protozoans
-feeding groove
-have flagalla

11

Excavates: Euglena

-has flagella
-mixotrophy
-has eyespot for detecting light intensity
-feeding groove

12

Amoebozoans

-most closely related to the Opishthokonts (animal/ fungi group)
-Amoeba: organisms with pseudopodia
-change shape constantly
-feed by phagocytosis
include: plasmodial slime mold, cellular slime molds, amoeboids

13

Amoebozoans: Plasmodial slime molds

-Plasmodium: single, large, multinucleate, feed on decomposers and dead plants matter

fruiting bodies: spores release amoebae

14

Slime Mold Life Cycle

1.multinucleate diploid plasmodium
2.plasmodium develops sporangia
3.sporangia produce spores
4.spores release haploid amoebae
5.haploid amoebae acts as decomposers and reproduce or act as gametes and fuse

15

Opisthokonts

-include fungi, animals, and choanoflagellates
-closely related to the amoeobozoans

16

fungi are diff from plants

cell wall: chitin instead of cellulose
glycogen: used to store carbohydrates

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types of fungi

-sac fungi: ascomycetes
-club fungi: basidiomycetes

18

Opisthokonts: fungi

-release enzymes into their environment and digest food outside of the body
-some are parasitic forms

-most are saprophytic decomposers: recycle inorganic nutrients

-many are symbiotic mutualists:
-lichens: relationship between algae or cyanobacteria and fungi
-mychorrhiza: relationship between rooms or plants and fungi: fungi give plants water and minerals, plants give fungi sugars

-Hyphae: individual filaments

-Mycelium: mass of hyphae

19

Sac Fungi: Ascomycetes

-asocarp: cup-like sexual reproductive structure
-reproduce by producing chains of asexual spores called CONIDIA
-ex: cup fungi, morels, truffles, yeasts (many) ((penicillium-penicilin))

20

CLub fungi: basidiomycetes

-Basidium: sexual reproductive structure
-Ex: mushroom !

21

Protists Nutrion: heterotrophs

-Heterotrophs:
-protozoans: eat bacteria and other protists
-parasites: derive nutrition from a living host

22

Protists Nutrion: Mixotrophs

-mixotrophs: use photosynthesis and heterotryophy