Chapter 29: Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Chapter 29: Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 29: Physiology, Homeostasis, and Temperature Regulation Deck (72):
1

physiology

the study of how organisms function
involves analysinc exchanges of energy and materials

2

intracellular fluid

the fluid inside of the cells
most of the water in a multicellular organism is intracellular fluid

3

extracellular fluid

fluid outside of the cell
not as much as intracellular
ex. plasma and interstitial

4

plasma

the liquid portion of blood
extracellular fluid

5

interstitial fluid

fluid between the cells of the body
extracellular fluid

6

Is it important to maintain constant internal conditions? If so, why? If not, why not?

Protects the cells from external and harsh conditions
Lets animals occupy habitats that would kill the cells with direct exposure
Cell health depends on internal environment
They are teeny tiny baby birds that must be protected from the world

7

homeostasis

the process of maintaining stable conditions in the internal environment

8

organ

a part of an organism that has a specific function and is made of tissues

9

tissue

an assemblage of cells (using that fancy art terminology)
ONLY 4 KINDS (which seems kind of super weird because there are like a bazillion cell types and lots of different organs, but I mean we only have 4 different base pairs to make tons of proteins)
The 4 types are:
epithelial
connective
nervous
muscle

10

Epithelial tissue

sheets of densely packed, interconnected epithelial cells that cover inner and outer body surfaces
think lining/liners
Can secrete stuff/sense stuff/transport stuff/be a border/etc.... (many different ways it can show up/exist)

11

Connective tissue

Dispersed populations of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix that the selves themselves secrete
The properties and composition differentiate different types
Protein fibers may make cartilage, while a liquid one may allow blood to flow

12

Adipose tissue

connective tissue of energy storing fat-cells with little extracellular matrix

13

Nervous tissues

neurons + glial cells
(peripheral and central nervous system)
communicate with neurotransmitters
glial cells don't communicate. They are glue!

14

Muscle tissues

they are like intense
bodyy masss
elongated cells contract to generate movement

15

Skeletal Muscle

(usually attached to bones)
responsible for locomotions and body movements

16

Cardiac Muscle

generates heartbeat and pumps blood

17

Smooth Muscle

generates forces in hollow internal organs

18

organ systems

organs that work together to carry out certain functions

19

what controls an animals physiological systems?

the nervous and endocrine systems

20

What is necessary to regulate physiological systems?

Information

21

control

kind of like how you make stuff happen
ex. control car with brake and accelerator
controlling car if you are going 394239048923049320849 mph or 0

22

regulate

Use current state to get tot he desired one
ex. have to know how fast you are going and how fast you want to go
(Where are you going, where have you been?)

23

set point

the desired state(not really a state but I couldn't think of a better word)
ex. desired speed in a car

24

feedback information

the reported info on current state
ex. speedometer reading

25

error signal

the difference between the set point and feedback information
they suggest corrective actions

26

Regulatory systems

obtain, process, and integrate feedback information and then issue commands
like the government

27

sensor

part of regulatory system
provides the feedback info that is compared with the set point

28

effectors

effect changes in the internal (or external environment)

29

negative feedback

most common use of sensory information
counteracts or negates whatever is pushing the system away from its set point
stabilizing
Brings it back to the set point

30

positive feedback

Amplifies a response
Increases deviation from set point
ex.
emptying body cavities
sexy times
labor
basically lots of stuff that you really want to think about at the same time

31

feedforward information

Changes the set point
predictive of a change before it occurs (like changing seasons)
ex. deer more important than speed limit

32

Ambient environment

External environment

33

Cell survival range

0 to 40 degrees Celsius, but varies based on species

34

Q10

Factor of temperature sensitivity
=Rt/(Rt-10)

35

Q10=1

Reaction is not temp sensitive

36

Ectotherm

An organism where body temp depends on outside environment

37

Endotherms

High and constant body temperatures are maintained over wide range of ambient ones

38

Thermoneutral Zone (TNZ)

Like TMZ but not at all
Temperature range where Mr is low and constant

39

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

MR at minimal level compatible with all of physiological functions to maintain homeostasis of the internal environment in the resting animal

40

In biological systems, Q10 is usually between

2 and 3

41

Ambient environment

External environment

42

Cell survival range

0 to 40 degrees Celsius, but varies based on species

43

Q10

Factor of temperature sensitivity
=Rt/(Rt-10)

44

Q10=1

Reaction is not temp sensitive

45

Ectotherm

An organism where body temp depends on outside environment

46

Endotherms

High and constant body temperatures are maintained over wide range of ambient ones

47

Thermoneutral Zone (TNZ)

Like TMZ but not at all
Temperature range where Mr is low and constant

48

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

MR at minimal level compatible with all of physiological functions to maintain homeostasis of the internal environment in the resting animal

49

In biological systems, Q10 is usually between

2 and 3

50

Heat budget question

The combination of heatin and heatout

51

Metabolism

All energy conversions produce heat as a by-product, including the all powerful metabolism
Produces heat in animal

52

Radiation

Heat transfers from warmer to cooler objects via exchange of infrared radiation
Ex standing in front of a fire

53

Rabs

Incoming radiation that is absorbed

54

Rout

Outgoing radiation which is emitted

55

Convection

Heat transfers to a surrounding medium such as air or water as that medium flows over a surface
Ex. Wind chill

56

Conduction

Heat transfers directly when objects of two different temperatures come into contact
Ex ice pack on an ankle

57

Evaporation

Heat transfers away from a surface when water evaporates on that surface
Ex sweating

58

What processes contribute to heatin (generally)?

Metabolism and Rabs

59

What processes generally contribute to Heatout?

Rout + convection + conduction + evaporation

60

Brown fat

Adipose tissue that has a high density of mitochondria and blood vessels
Found in newborns

61

Shivering thermogenesis

Shivering to increase MR

62

Lower critical temperature

The lower end of a thermoneutral zone

63

An animal with a smaller body size has a _____________ BMR per gram compared to a larger animal

higher
Smaller surface area to volume
more support tissue (skin and bone)

64

What is the major adaptation of endotherms to cold climates?

insulation

65

How to measure thermal insulation?

MR= K(Tb-Ta)
K= slope of curve or thermal conductance

66

Thermal conductance

A measure of how readily the animal loses heat
K

67

insulation

how effectively an animal conserves heat

68

Can MR be 0?

Nope

69

How can the MR value be at BMR level for a wide range of temperatures?

Above the lower critical temperature, the animal can change the value of K by ruffling fur/feathers or blood vessel movement

70

countercurrent heat exchange

Heat is exchanged between blood vessels carrying blood in opposite directions
run parallel

71

daily torpor

lowering of the body temp during a portion of the day to save energy

72

Hibernation

An extreme form of torpor
bouts of torpor last multiple days
can be regulated slightly above freezing