Chapter 2B - Coming Of The Age Of Science And Reason Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2B - Coming Of The Age Of Science And Reason Deck (39)
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What was the scientific revolution?

-moved from belief that nature was controlled by God to belief that a rational perspective should be used to understand nature
-emergence of modern scientific beliefs
-new discoveries altered views on the natural world


What were the two main ideas that shaped natural philosophy?

1) Aristotelian beliefs based on the work of Aristotle believed earth of centre of universe (homocentric) and only simple circular motions could take place in space. Used empirical thinking (learning from observation and experience. Carrying out experiments)
2) Platonic beliefs based on work of Plato. More theoretical approach, moved away from observed knowledge
-experiments and observations were key to understanding nature


What were caladiums Ptolemy' view on the universe? What impact did this have on belief in WC?

-born in 90AD and believed that planets moved around earth
-tracked position of sun and earth using tables
-thought more planets and stars could exist. Unlike Aristotle he believed planets moved on an epicycle
-ideas were nothing new
-based on theories with little observed evidence to back it up
-enforced perceptions.


What were Nicolaus Copernicus' ideas about the universe? What impact did this have on beliefs in WC?

-proposed universe was made up of 8 spheres with sun at centre
-everything in solar system moved around the sun
-planets did not interfere with one another
-planets moved in perfect circles and first to suggest that earth did move
-if earth moved there was no room for heaven and hell. Put holes in religion
-book marked the start of sci rev and banned by catholics
-he was generally not taken seriously
-theoretical ideas with no empirical observations. Still believed that planets moved in perfect circles


What were Brahe's views on the universe and what effect did this have on WC?

-Brahe was imperial astronomer for Holy Roman Empire in 1597
-All planets circled the sun but the sun circled the earth
-comets existed OUTSIDE of the atmosphere
-1572 observed a new supernova. Went against ideas that universe could not change and was uniform
-stated that planets moved independently through space and not on spheres
-started the use of empirical thinking
-witchcraft could start to be explained by natural forces


What were Johannes Keplar's views on the universe? What impact did this have on beliefs in WC?

-from 1600 assisted Brahe with his research.
-believed planets moved in elliptical orbits
-speed of planets vary depending on distance to the sun
-still thought God created universe and was deeply religious
-believed in Copernicus' heliocentric view of the world
-first to suggest that planets further away from the sun took longer to travel around it
-used observations and maths to back up ideas. Use of maths pushed the subject further
-interested in mysticism and godly explanations for events


What were Galileo Galilei's ideas on the universe? How did this effect WC?

-mathematic professor born in Pisa, 1564
-believed tides caused by earth speeding up and slowing down on its axis
-discovered more stars and believed universe was much bigger than first thought
-rejected Brahe's findings
-moon orbited circular earth and discovered moons of Jupiter
-rejected the right of the church to act as an authority over sci matters and believed only way to find the truth was through reflection and experience. Pope rejected burial and banned his books
-used a mathematical approach to study natural phenomena (Nothing new but was able to communicate his ideas well)


What was Galileo's most notable publication? What was his biggest achievement?

-Two chief world system
-he saw himself as an heir to work of both Aristotle and Copernicus. Liked Aristotles logical approach and agreed with Copernicus' views regarding the make-up of the universe
-the Two chief world systems he refers to are the Ptolemaic system (modified from Aristotle) and the Copernican system
-his biggest achievement was in developing a mathematical approach to the study of natural phenomena


What were Issac Newtons ideas on the universe? What impact did this have on WC?

-explained centrifugal force
-3 laws of motion
-physics on earth did not work differently than everywhere else. We were not special
-proved keplars laws of planetary motion
-work represents final stage of a long process of theory and discovery
-completed the "mathematisation" of natural philosophy. He succeeded in making all his calculations work leaving no mysterious or grey areas


What was Newtons most significant publication?

-Principia Mathematica
-outlined his core beliefs and ideas


What were Newtons views on magic?

-believed in arcane knowledge and the power of magic
-initially speculated that gravity may be the work of magic of some kind
-obsessed with the number 7 and uses it in many of his accounts
-belief in cosmic-harmonies followed Keplar's belief in an harmonious universe, where god created 6 planets to fit in with a perfect geometric plan
-he was an alchemist
-dedicated himself to studying the bible as well


Who was Francis Bacon?

-Born in london 1561
-enrolled at Trinity Collage, Cambridge at the age of 12 where he lived for 3 years
-recognised as an outstanding intellectual in his teens
-became MP in 1584


What is inductive reasoning?

-reasoning based on evidence
-allows for an original hypothesis to be proved false


What is deductive reasoning?

-conclusion made based on something already known or assumed
-a rule that applies to one instance will also apply to another instance


What approach did Bacon use?

-inductive reasoning
-sci discovery is best aided by accumulating as much data about the subject as possible
-method involved rejecting any preconceived theories or conclusions about the subject matter
-methodical and meticulous observation of facts was the best way to understand natural phenomena


How did Bacon's approach differ from others before him?

-pre Bacon sci thinking was heavily influenced by the church and this restricted sci advancement for centuries


What was the importance of inductive reasoning?

-Bacon thought that preconceived theories could mislead scientists and philosophers
-his reasoning was carried out through 'Tables of instances' where all the facts about a given subject were recorded and then a theory emerged from these facts


What was the disadvantage of using inductive reasoning?

-Preserved the belief in magic and the occult
-it was similar to the logic used by those who studied natural magic
-allowed for unexplained or supernatural physical phenomena to exist as long as they were observed as part of the sci process


What were the main publications Bacon wrote?

-"The advancement of learning" 1605; argued for empirical thinking and that observation and experience was the best way to gain knowledge
-"the new instrument" 1620; argues for his experimental method, became an important guidebook for the men who founded the Royal society


What was the invisible college?

-founded in 1645 when a group of natural philosophers who had a lose connection to Gresham college began meeting after the astronomy lecture.
-they would go on to form the royal society


What is the difference between empirical thinking and inductive reasoning?

-Inductive reasoning is based on evidence and can be used to disprove existing theories
-Empirical thinking = knowledge from experience. Carry out experiments


What did the founding of Gresham collage represent? What was one significant achievement of Greshamites pre 1645

-established a permanent organisation that would be responsible for research in the mathematical sciences
-astronomy and geometry not recognised until professorships created at Gresham
-First professor of geometry, Henry Briggs, popularised use of logs


What is the Royal society?

-founded after restoration of monarchy in 1660
-established in 1662, it met one a week and its membership included men from all areas of intellectual study. (Samuel Pepys, John Locke and various others)
-wanted to expand the arts and sciences
-more attractive than oxford and cambs with Newton being the head for 24 years


How was the royal society structured?

-divided into a number of committees, each responsible for different areas of study
-first few years spent researching variety of tings other than science
-followed the baconian method of investigation. After 1684 focused solely on science


What's was the impact of the Royal society?

-some say not very as it was only a channel for scientists to air their discoveries
-however its aim to gather all knowledge about nature made it extremely well respected
-knowledge only used for public good rather than to fill their interests
"Philosophical transactions" presented research of society.
-Sharing of information allowed them to work together on discoveries


How did the royal society meet its aims and how did it survive?

-funded from wealthy supporters
-the aim to carry out work that benefited the public good was achieved through regular public demonstrates with public anatomy lessons and directions taking place on bodies of criminals. (Less unknowns = less fears and increased belief in sci)
-gave boost to the increasing belief in Europe that humans could progress without divine assistance


What was the societies beliefs on magic?

-despite claims that it significantly undermined WC many members did believe in magic
-Issac Newton was just one of the members who took an interest in alchemy
-However they still thought that many of the cases were not true


Who was Thomas Hobbes?

-born in 1588 and attended Oxford he was a travelled man and worked as tutor of the elite (including a young Charles II in Paris)
-1651 published "Leviathan" where he advocated a strong government led by a single leader


What is deductive reasoning?

-application of existing rules
-testing of propositions
-use of preconceived theories
-facts collected to prove theory


Why did Hobbes dislike inductive reasoning?

-too experimental
-never provides secure knowledge that is irrefutable
-an element of doubt always exists when some observed facts cannot be explained


How did Hobbes use deductive reasoning to support the monarchy?

-argued that it is not the system that creates corrupt, tyrannical or self seeking politicians, but the politicians themselves


What is materialism?

-idea that everything is created by matter and that all observed events, including those to do with the mind and spirit, are the results of matter acting on matter


How did Hobbes use the concept of materialism?

-did not believe in WC as the events were not founded on matter
-unusual phenomena that had been observed had never been proven to go against the law of nature and cases of possession were the result of madness or epilepsy
-his approach helped influence many people (including sceptical writers) to approach WC with a rational mindset


Who is John Locke?

-born in 1632 to a puritan family and went on to study at Oxford
-Ideas became influential quickly and by the time of his death in 1704 his theories were well known.
-political ideas had been applied in the glorious revolution
-Seen as father of modern empiricism as he sought to make his conclusions only through experience or through observing the experience of others


What is Locke best know for?

-helping to shape a new era of Liberal Philosophy. Helped to inspire the French and American revolutions, opponent of the monarchy and favoured individual rights and freedoms
-Essay concerning Human Understanding (1690)


What is in Locks most notable publication?

-presents a detailed interpretation of the working of the mind.
-questions how we think, how we perceive the world around us and the nature of religious practices. Concludes that experience is the most important source of human knowledge
-also put forward an argument that all things consist only of matter


What is the significance of Locke's work?

-was a materialist and made no allowances for belief in supernatural
-did not confirm that spirits did not exist. Instead he thought it was impossible to make a decision on them as he had not experienced them for himself.
-Sprits nature and existence in based on personal perceptions which can never be proved
-claimed astrology could be useful in medicine


Did belief in magic and WC decline with the advancement of sci and reason?

-yes, important breakthroughs in understanding universe and world around us allowed people to disprove the supernatural
-growing belief in experimental method and rational beliefs were reflected in sceptical publications
-decline in belief was not steady and was clearly faster after 1660. Even thinkers such as Newton had beliefs in supernatural


What other factors led to the decline in WC during the age of sci and reason?

-the issue of poverty had improved somewhat by the 1700's
-this led to less suspicion between poverty-stricken neighbours and fewer vengeful accusations of WC
-growth of insurance meant that merchants were making an attempt to safeguard against chance events and did not need to blame witches for the misfortunes if their losses were covered by insurance