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Flashcards in Chapter 3 Deck (34):
1

Constant abuse of the spine from moving and lifting patients is the leading cause of injury to health care personnel in all health care institutions.

Body mechanics

2

Center gravity/To prevent lower back injury

Always keep the center of gravity
Knees flexed
Weight over both feet
Do not bend @ the waist or wrist with the body

3

Rules of body mechanics

Based on laws of gravity

4

Force pull object toward center of earth

Gravity

5

Center of gravity

Point @ mass of any body is centered
Pt standing to center gravity @ pelvis center

6

Body is in alignment with all the parts in balance
Aids in other body systems to work efficiently

Knees slightly bent – act as shock absorbers

Good posture

7

Safe body mechanics

Require good posture

8

Lifting pt

Stand with feet apart to increase base of support

9

Rules for correct upright posture

Stand w/feet // right angle to lower legs 4-8"
Chest up and out to allow the lungs to work at maximal efficiency

10

Force of friction

opposes movement

11

When moving & lifting object

Force of weight & friction must overcome
Keep heaviest part of object closer to body
Bend knees & lower body
Do not bend from waist

12

Moving & transferring pt

If patient is unable to assist, have patient place arms across their chest
Pull rather than push
Sliding board or pull sheet placed under an immobile patient aids in movement

13

Avoid injury when moving heavy object

Keep body's line of balance closet to center of the load

14

Which is a the strongest arm muscles and effective for pulling

Bicep muscles

15

Joint Commission states

“immobilizers should be used only after less restrictive measures have been attempted and have proved ineffective in protecting the patient”

16

Types of Immobilizers

Limb holders or four-point restraints
Ankle or wrist immobilizers
Immobilizing vest
Keeps patient in a wheelchair
Waist immobilizer
Keeps patient safe on examining table or in a bed
Patient is able to change positions

17

Immobilizers

"Restraints"
Method of physical or mechanical device or material attached to pt cannot remove easily

18

Skin breakdown

result in a decubitus ulcer

19

What causes tissue necrosis?

Immobilizing a patient in one position for an extended period of time
Moving a patient too quickly or without adequate protection can damage skin

20

Friction caused by

movement back and forth on a rough or uneven surface
Lying on a damp sheet or wet gown can damage skin

21

To Prevent Decubitus Ulcers

Areas most susceptible
Scapula, sacrum, trochanters, knees, heels of the feet
Change position often
Place pillow or soft blanket under patient
Protect patient’s feet and lower legs during a position change or transfer
Care to prevent bruising while moving patient is necessary
Watch circulation impairment

22

Made of plaster, fiberglass, plastic or cast-tape material
Depends on injury
Length of time for immobilization
Physician’s preference
Careful of cast compression
Caution when moving a patient with a cast

Cast Care & Traction

23

Lying on the right/left side with both knees flexed

Lateral recumbent position

24

Pt semi-sits with head raised @ 45-90 angle
Used for respiratory distress

High Fowler position

25

Pt head is raised @ 15-30 degree angle
Used to prevent circulatory impairment

Semi-Fowler position

26

Lies on either left or right side with forward arm flexed & post. arm extended behind the body.
Top knee sharply bent
Bottom knee slightly bent
BE exam

Sims position

27

Table/bed is inclined
Pt head is lower than feet

Trendelenburg position

28

Walking or able to walk

Ambulatory

29

Decrease in the size of the organ, tissue or muscle

Atrophy

30

A pressure sore or ulcer

Decubitus ulcer

31

Labored or difficult breathing

Dyspnea

32

Deficiency of blood in a body part due to functional constriction or actual obstruction of a blood vessel

Ischemia

33

Localized death of tissue due to injury
Lack of oxygen

Tissue necrosis

34

Area of tissue necrosis that penetrates below the epidermis
Excavation of the surface of any body organ

Ulceration